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[en] The experiments were carried out to assess the effect of fertilizer application on indigenous medicinal plant Andrographis paniculata Nees (Sega-gyi) on yield components such as plant heigh (cm), fresh weight of whole plant (g), dry weigth of whole plant (g), dry weigth of leave per plant (g), mineral elemental contents of the leaves (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and medically active compound andrographolide of the leaves from the green-house experiment. Various methods applied in the growth of medicinal plant A. paniculata Nees (Sega-gyi), comprised the dripping (Dropwise) and the spraying methods of the prepared blue green algae (BGA) Spirulina, the composite mixture of prepared BGA+ soil, mineral fertilizer + soil and soil itself as control. In all the fertilizer treatments, the dripping (Dropwise) method using the BGA biofertilizer gave rise to the highest growth of 100 cm when the average fresh weigth of the whole plant was 440g. Andrographolide crystals were isolated, identified and confirmed by chromatographic techniques. A single standard HPLC peak by UV detection (225 nm) indication a retention time of 4.36 min and its melting point (232 C) were found to correspond to the literature values. Analytical results of the leaves of Sega-gyi by the dripping (Dropwise) method indicated the presence of 2.12% andrographolide and also the mineral elements with the composition of N (22.78), P (1.93), K (16.15), Ca (23.70) and Mg (4.85) mg/g. Although the mechanism of micro-algal plant growth regulatory action has not yet been studied, from this research work it was observed that the BGA biofertilizer promotes plant growth, improves the soil physical conditions, and also enhance the yield of medicinally active compound andrographolide.
[en] Highlights: • Trace element concentration was measured in the soil and medicinal plants. • The transfer factors from soil to medicinal plants were evaluated. • The transfer factors were found in the order Rb > Sr > Ca > K > Zn > Cu > Mn. - Abstract: The transfer factors of trace elements from soil to medicinal plants were determined in the region of Hassan district of south India. The trace element concentration was determined using the Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometer. The transfer factors were found in the order Rb > Sr > Ca > K > Zn > Cu > Mn. The transfer factors were found to be high, for most of the plants. The concentration of Rb and Sr was found to be high in medicinal plants, which can be attributed to the mineralogy of the region and plant morphology.
[en] Plumeria (Apocynaceae), a genus of scenery plants commonly known as frangipani, comprises around 8 species which are mainly distributed in tropical countries. Plumeria species are well known to be have various pharmacological properties such as diarrhea, gonorrhea, syphilis, venereal sores, leprosy, fever, cough, tracheitis, infective hepatitis, purgative, bronchitis, dysentery, blood disorders, tumor and respiratory ect. These pharmacological properties are due to the presence of certain secondary metabolites such as iridoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins, steroids and their glycosides. Literature shows that Plumeria genus is a good source of iridoids. This review reports the iridoids and their biological activities isolated from various species of the genus Plumeria till to date. It is also found that iridoids are also present in plants of various other families, and the plants that posses iridoids have significant biological activities. (author)
[en] In the present study a survey of 24 commonly used medicinal plants of Indian subcontinent origin was carried out to evaluate their levels of heavy metals by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the highest mean value for Cd (12.06 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cr (24.50 mu g.g/sup -1/), Cu (15.27 mu g.g/sup -1/), Pb (1.30 mu g.g/sup -1/), Fe (885.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Mn (90.60 mu g.g/sup -1/), Ni (9.99 mu g.g/sup -1/) and Zn (77.15 mu g.g/sup -1/) were found in Lawsonia inermis, Murraya koenigii, Mentha spicata, Beta vulgaris Linn, Mentha spicata, Lagenaria sicerana standl, Lawsonia inermis, Emblica officinalis, respectively. The mean and maximum levels of Cd in plant samples were found higher than the recommended values of the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization and may constitute a health hazard for consumers. All other heavy metals in medicinal plants were found below the recommended tolerable limits. (author)
[en] Like many other mountain communities, people living in the peripheries of Khunjerab National Park (KNP) have been using plant resources for food, medicine, shelter, fuel and other purposes since long. The present study was carried out to record the most common medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) and their traditional uses by the local inhabitants from the study area. A total of 43 plant species belonging to 40 genera and 28 families were recorded from Dhee, Barkhun, Shimshal and Khunjerab pastures during field visits conducted in 2006-2008, which are being used by the people of the area for the preparation of herbal recipes. In all, Asteraceae family contributed the highest number of species (11.63%), followed by Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (9.30% each), Chenopodiaceae and Elaeagnaceae (4.65% each). Twenty nine diseases were treated by the reported species. Maximum number of species were employed for treating fever (9 spp.), followed by cough, in digestion (5 spp. each), wounds, eye infection, abdominal pain, jaundice, blood pressure and diarrhea (4 spp. each). The study area is a fragile ecosystem which is rapidly degrading due to excessive grazing and over exploitation by the inhabitants for their customary needs. In order to protect the dwindling floral resources and their classical uses, concrete conservation measures i.e., education and awareness, integration of traditional knowledge with modern health care and ex situ conservation of threatened species, supporting local livelihoods and rural economy is inevitable. (author)
[en] In Malaysia the Eurycoma longifolia is better known as a Tongkat Ali, where it has great local demand as a health tonic. Observation after 3 months revealed that modified MS medium (1/2 Nitrate) supplemented with IBA at 5.0 mg/L and 6.0 mg/L (5% sucrose) was found to be the best formulation for adventitious root induction. The data obtained showed that 70% (10 + 2 adventitious root per explants) of the explants cultured formed the adventitious root in both treatments. Other treatments tested within the range (1.0- 10.0 mg/L) produced less than four adventitious roots per explant. Meanwhile, in the treatment using IAA, the highest formation of root was recorded in 7.0 mg/L with the number of root produced was 3 + 1 per explant. Apart from that, observation after 2 months revealed that 4 + 1 adventitious root per explant was observed in the treatment using 4 mg/L NAA. The chemical profiling studies was carried out by focusing on the production of 9-methoxycanthine-6-one in callus derived from different explants, namely leaf, petiole, rachis and root. The Rf value spots of 9-methoxycanthine-6-one (obtained from the TLC) analysis showed a yellowish green in colour when observed under UV light at 366 nm. Based on the intensity and size of the spots on the chromatogram, it was detected that concentration of 9-methoxycanthine-6-one in root-derived callus was generally higher as compared to other calluses. Therefore, adventitious root culture can be an attractive as it is highly differentiated and can cause stable and extensive production of secondary metabolites. (Author)
[en] Full text : Recently in order to protect organisms from the of radiation effect radio protectors have been applied principally concerning to sulfur compounds, aminothioles and indolilalkins. Due to the long-term exploitations and misuse of soil under man-made factor the area of eroded soils has significantly increased. Consequently, cultivation and pasture areas have decreased. Recently the use of synthetic medicinal preparations has increased in order to meet the demands of people. Race mates are not observed in natural substances. The presence of race mates and isomers in human organism causes different diseases. Therefore its required to set new soils in operation and cultivate highly-productive species. The seeds and seed oil have been used as a diuretic, appetitive, hemorrhagic and anti dandruff therapy in folk medicine. The seeds have also been used traditionally for centuries in the Middle East, Far East, and some Mediterranean and European countries for the treatment of deferent ailments such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiac diseases, hemorrhoids, and sexual diseases and a s an abortifacient. Essential oil plants are potential radio protectors. Many plants are applied according to radio protector features of essential oils. Radiotherapy is one of the most common therapies for treating human cancers. Several studies have indicated that irradiation induces reactive oxygen species which play an important role in radiation damage of the cell. In the scientific literature there results as alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages have been used to treat burns radioactive substances and their removal from the body. Our progress in the preparation of liqueurs, sadofos, soft drinks from plants, will allow the successful use. Clean oil of sea buck thorn, black cumin and basil have strong radio protective properties. The production of these oils without determinant of impurities has been tested in laboratory conditions, the implementations of this technology
[en] The present studies comprise the distribution of important flavonoids amongst the selected 13 medicinal plants viz., Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala, Broussonetia papyrifera, Taraxacum officinale, Urtica dioica, Verbascum thapsus, Caryopteris grata and Mimosa rubicaulis collected from Margalla Hills for their authentication. Kaemferol was only detected in Verbascum thapsus. Myrcetin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo and Broussonetia papyrifera. Catechin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa , Chenopodium ambrosoides and Caryopteris grata. Vitexin was found absent in all the plants under study except Adhatoda vasica, Chenopodium ambrosoides and Peganum harmala. Orientin was detected in Woodfordia fruticosa, Adhatoda vasica, Viburnum cotinifolium, Euphorbia hirta, Vitex negundo, Peganum harmala, Urtica dioica and Caryopteris grata. Rutin and Kaempferol-7-neohesperoside were detected only in Broussonetia papyrifera. Quercitin was detected in Euphorbia hirta, Verbascum thapsus, Caryopteris grata and Mimosa rubicaulis. Luteolin was common among all the species. (author)
[en] Thirteen plants which are traditionally used for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Myanmar were selected and tested for antibacterial activity by using agar disc diffusion technique. Polar and nonpolar solvents were employed for extraction of plants. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extracts with the most significant predominant activity were evaluated by plate dilution method. The plants Eugenia jambolana, Quisqualis indica, Leucaena glauca and Euphorbia splendens var. 1 were found to show significant antibacterial activity. It was also observed that extracts using nonpolar solvents did not show any antibacterial activity and extracts using polar solvents showed antibacterial activity on tested bacteria, indicating that the active chemical compound responsible for the antibacterial action must be a polar soluble compound. (author)
[en] Highlights: • RGWE inhibits HUVEC ability to form tubes on matrigel in vitro. • RGWE interferes, through MEK/ERK, with the VEGF-mediated signaling that leads to angiogenesis. • RGWE is proposed as a new therapeutic tool to prevent pathological angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a process encompassing several steps such as endothelial cells proliferation, differentiation and migration to form a vascular network, involving different signal transduction pathways. Among these, ERK1/2 signaling mediates VEGF-dependent signaling pathway. Here we report that the water extract of Ruta graveolens (RGWE), widely known as a medicinal plant, is able to impair in a dose-dependent manner, cell network formation without affecting cell viability. Biochemical analysis showed that the major component of RGWE is rutin, unable to reproduce RGWE effect. We found that RGWE inhibits ERK1/2 phosphorylation and that this event is crucial in cell network formation since the transfection of HUVEC with a constitutively active MEK (caMEK), the ERK1/2 activator, induces a robust cell network formation as compared to untransfected and/or mock transfected cells and, more importantly, caMEK transfected cells became unresponsive to RGWE. Moreover, RGWE inhibits VEGF and nestin gene expression, necessary for vessel formation, and the caMEK transfection induces their higher expression. In conclusion, we report that RGWE is able to significantly impair vessels network formation without affecting cell viability, preventing ERK1/2 activation and, in turn, down-regulating VEGF and nestin expression. These findings point to RGWE as a potential therapeutic tool capable to interfere with pathologic angiogenesis.