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[en] Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver. Detection of HCC can be difficult, as most of the patients who develop this tumor have no symptoms other than those related to their longstanding liver disease. There is an urgent need to understand the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the development of this disease so that appropriate therapies can be designed. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) is an essential enzyme required for the biosynthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet), an important methyl donor in the cell. Alterations in the expression of MAT genes and a decline in AdoMet biosynthesis are known to be associated with liver injury, cirrhosis and HCC. This review focuses on the role of MAT genes in HCC development and the scope for therapeutic strategies using these genes
[en] It has been established that overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) occurs during hemodialysis causing oxidation of proteins. Alpha-1-antitrypsin is the major circulating anti-protease which contains methionine in the active site. The aim of the present study was to measure the level of serum trypsin inhibitory capacity (sTIC) in hemodialysis patients. This case-control study was performed in 52 hemodialysis patients and 49 healthy controls. sTIC was measured by enzymatic assay. The sTIC was significantly (P< 0.001) lower in hemodialysis patients (1.87 + - 0.67 micron mol/min/mL) than healthy controls (2.83 + - 0.44 micron mol/min/L). Reduction of sTIC may be due to the oxidation of methionine residue in the reactive site of alpha-1 antitrypsin. (author)
[en] The dopamine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL) is believed to play a central role in Parkinson's disease neurodegeneration by stabilizing potentially toxic oligomers of the presynaptic protein α-Synuclein (aSyn). Besides the formation of covalent DOPAL-Lys adducts, DOPAL promotes the oxidation of Met residues of aSyn, which is also a common oxidative post-translational modification found in the protein in vivo. Herein we set out to address the role of Met residues on the oligomerization and neurotoxic properties of DOPAL-modified aSyn. Our data indicate that DOPAL promotes the formation of two distinct types of aSyn oligomers: large and small (dimer and trimers) oligomers, which seem to be generated by independent mechanisms and cannot be interconverted by using denaturing agents. Interestingly, H2O2-treated aSyn monomer, which exhibits all-four Met residues oxidized to Met-sulfoxide, exhibited a reduced ability to form large oligomers upon treatment with DOPAL, with no effect on the population of small oligomers. In this context, triple Met-Val mutant M5V/M116V/M127V exhibited an increased population of large aSyn-DOPAL oligomers in comparison with the wild-type protein. Interestingly, the stabilization of large rather than small oligomers seems to be associated with an enhanced toxicity of DOPAL-aSyn adducts. Collectively, these findings indicate that Met residues may play an important role in modulating both the oligomerization and the neurotoxic properties of DOPAL-derived aSyn species.
[en] Highlights: • Calmodulin’s open and closed states are stabilized by unique, redox sensitive methionine-aromatic interactions. • Methionine-aromatic interactions govern key conformational transitions in calmodulin through coupling with EF hand motion. • Methionine oxidation likely tunes target specificity by altering the strength of key methionine-aromatic interactions. Calmodulin contains multiple redox sensitive methionines whose oxidation alters the regulation of numerous targets. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to define the molecular principles that govern how calmodulin is structurally poised to detect and respond to methionine oxidation. We found that calmodulin's open and closed states were preferentially stabilized by unique, redox sensitive, methionine-aromatic interactions. Key methionine-aromatic interactions were coupled to reorientation of EF hand helices. Methionine to glutamine substitutions designed to mimic methionine oxidation strongly altered conformational transitions by modulating the strength of methionine-aromatic interactions. Together, these results suggest a broadly applicable redox sensing mechanism though which methionine oxidation by cellular oxidants alters the strength of methionine-aromatic interactions critical for functional protein dynamics.
[en] Highlights: • We reported 2 patients with mitochondrial encepahlomyopathy disorder. • The homoplasmic mutation c.41T > C (p.M > 14) in SUCLG1 gene was reported. • A decrease of mtDNA copy number in both patients was detected. • These are the first cases of mitochondrial encepahlomyopathy with succinyl coA deficiency reported in Africa. Deficiency of the mitochondrial enzyme succinyl COA ligase (SUCL) is associated with encephalomyopathic mtDNA depletion syndrome and methylmalonic aciduria. This disorder is caused by mutations in both SUCL subunits genes: SUCLG1 (α subnit) and SUCLA2 (β subnit). We report here, two Tunisian patients belonging to a consanguineous family with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, hearing loss, lactic acidosis, hypotonia, psychomotor retardation and methylmalonic aciduria. Mutational analysis of SUCLG1 gene showed, for the first time, the presence of c.41T > C in the exon 1 at homozygous state. In-silico analysis revealed that this mutation substitutes a conserved methionine residue to a threonine at position 14 (p.M14T) located at the SUCLG1 protein mitochondrial targeting sequence. Moreover, these analysis predicted that this mutation alter stability structure and mitochondrial translocation of the protein. In Addition, a decrease in mtDNA copy number was revealed by real time PCR in the peripheral blood leukocytes in the two patients compared with controls.
[en] A sensitive radioisotope dilution method was used to measure the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) content in macroplasmodia of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum during the mitotic cycle. The AdoMet pool had two maxima, one during mitosis, the other in the middle of G2 phase
[en] Acetaminophen (APAP) is the leading cause of drug induced liver failure in the United States. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) is protective for APAP hepatic toxicity. SAMe is critical for glutathione synthesis and transmethylation of nucleic acids, proteins and phospholipids which would facilitate recovery from APAP toxicity. SAMe is synthesized in cells through the action of methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). This study tested the hypothesis that total hepatic and subcellular SAMe levels are decreased by APAP toxicity. Studies further examined MAT expression and activity in response to APAP toxicity. Male C57BL/6 mice (16-22 g) were treated with vehicle (Veh; water 15 ml/kg ip injections), 250 mg/kg APAP (15 ml/kg, ip), SAMe (1.25 mmol/kg) or SAMe administered 1 h after APAP injection (SAMe and SAMe + APAP). Hepatic tissue was collected 2, 4, and 6 h after APAP administration. Levels of SAMe and its metabolite S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) were determined by HPLC analysis. MAT expression was examined by Western blot. MAT activity was determined by fluorescence assay. Total liver SAMe levels were depressed at 4 h by APAP overdose, but not at 2 or 6 h. APAP depressed mitochondrial SAMe levels at 4 and 6 h relative to the Veh group. In the nucleus, levels of SAMe were depressed below detectable limits 4 h following APAP administration. SAMe administration following APAP (SAMe + APAP) prevented APAP associated decline in mitochondrial and nuclear SAMe levels. In conclusion, the maintenance of SAMe may provide benefit in preventing damage associated with APAP toxicity.