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[en] Due to the severity of depressive symptoms, there remains a necessity in defining the underlying mechanisms of depression and the precise actions of antidepressants in alleviating these symptoms. Proteomics is a powerful and promising tool for discovering novel pathways of cellular responses to disease and treatment. As chronic social isolation (CSIS) is a valuable animal model for studying depression, we performed a comparative subproteomic study of rat hippocampus to explore the effect of six weeks of CSIS and the therapeutic effect of chronic fluoxetine (Flx) treatment (last three weeks of CSIS; 15 mg/kg/day). Behaviorally, Flx treatment normalized the decreased sucrose preference and increased marble burying results resulting from CSIS, indicative of a FLX-induced attenuation of both anhedonia and anxiety. An analysis of cytosolic and nonsynaptic mitochondrial subproteome patterns revealed that CSIS resulted in down-regulation of proteins involved in mitochondrial transport and energy processes, primarily tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Chronic Flx treatment resulted in an up-regulation of CSIS-altered proteins and additional expression of other transporter and energy-involved proteins. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed hippocampal subregion-specific effects of CSIS and/or Flx treatment on selective protein expressions. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
[en] There is a general trend in revisiting mitochondria using the up-to-date technologies that uncovered novel attributes of this organelle, such as the intracellular displacement to locations where an energy supply is needed, the dynamic shape changes and turnover, the initiation of signaling to the rest of the cell, and the ability to crosstalk with other cellular organelles. The in-depth scrutiny of platelet mitochondria role in health and pathology is included within this ongoing revisiting trend. The current article puts into a nutshell the most recent data on platelet mitochondria function and disease-related ion, focusing on generation of stress- and apoptosis-related signaling molecules, overproduction of reactive oxygen species during activation and disease, on the biomarker potential of platelets mitochondria, and their prospective exploitation in translational applications. These novel findings complete the physiological profile of platelets and could have potential therapeutic effectiveness in platelet-associated disorders.
[en] The ability to escape apoptosis or programmed cell death is a hallmark of human cancers, for example pancreatic cancer. This can promote tumorigenesis, since too little cell death by apoptosis disturbs tissue homeostasis. Additionally, defective apoptosis signaling is the underlying cause of failure to respond to current treatment approaches, since therapy-mediated antitumor activity requires the intactness of apoptosis signaling pathways in cancer cells. Thus, the elucidation of defects in the regulation of apoptosis in pancreatic carcinoma can result in the identification of novel targets for therapeutic interference and for exploitation for cancer drug discovery
[en] PTEN inducible kinase-1 (PINK1) mutant induces mitochondrial dysfunction of cells, resulting in an inherited form of Parkinson's disease. However its exact role in the cardiomyocytes is unclear. The present study examined the function of PINK1 in hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R) induced H9c2 cell damage and its potential mechanism. The H/R model in H9c2 cells was established by 6 h of hypoxia and 12 h of reoxygenation. The CCK8 and LDH assay indicated that the cell viability was obviously reduced after H/R. The expression of PINK1 was decreased in H/R-induced H9c2 cells compared with control group. The vector overexpressing PINK1 was constructed to transfect into H/R-induced H9c2 cells. Our results showed that cell viability was increased, cell apoptosis and caspase 3, cytochrome C (Cyto C) levels were decreased after LV-PINK1 transfection. Furthermore, PINK1 overexpression stabilized electron transport chain (ETC) activity, increased ATP production, mPTP opening and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), inhibited ROS-generating mitochondria, implying PINK1 alleviates H/R induced mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiomyocytes. In addition, the TRAP-1 siRNA was transfected into PINK1 treated H9c2 cells after H/R to detected the molecular mechanism of PINK1 protecting cardiomyocytes. The results indicated that silence of TRAP-1 reversed the effects of PINK1 in H/R-induced H9c2 cells. In conclusion, these results suggest that PINK1 overexpression alleviates H/R-induced cell damage of H9c2 cells by phosphorylation of TRAP-1, and that is a valid approach for protection from myocardial I/R injury. - Highlights: • Effects of H/R on cell viability and PINK1 expression in H9c2 cells. • Effects of PINK1 on cell viability in H9c2 cells with H/R model. • Effects of PINK1 on mitochondrial dysfunction in H9c2 cells with H/R model. • PINK1 ameliorates H/R-induced H9c2 cells injury by activating p-TRAP-1.
[en] Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant progressive neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny neurons within the striatum. HD is caused by inheritance of an expanded CAG repeat in the HTT gene, resulting in a mutant huntingtin (mHtt) protein containing extra glutamine residues. Despite the advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in HD the preferential vulnerability of the striatum remains an intriguing question. This review discusses current knowledge that links altered mitochondrial dynamics with striatal susceptibility in HD. We also highlight how the modulation of mitochondrial function may constitute an attractive therapeutic approach to reduce mHtt-induced toxicity and therefore prevent the selective striatal neurodegeneration. - Highlights: • Mitochondrial dynamics is unbalanced towards fission in HD. • Excessive mitochondrial fragmentation plays a critical role in the selective vulnerability of the striatum in HD. • Therapeutic approaches aimed to inhibit mitochondrial fission could contribute to prevent striatal neurodegeneration in HD.
[en] Signaling via the intrinsic (mitochondrial) pathway of apoptosis represents one of the critical signal transduction cascades that control the regulation of cell death. This pathway is typically altered in human cancers, thereby providing a suitable target for therapeutic intervention. Members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins as well as cell survival signaling cascades such as the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway are involved in the regulation of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Therefore, further insights into the molecular mechanisms that form the basis for the control of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis will likely open new perspectives to bypass evasion of apoptosis and treatment resistance in human cancers.
[en] Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and can occur by caspase-dependent apoptosis or alternatively, by caspase-independent PCD (ciPCD). Bcl-2, a central regulator of apoptosis, localizes to both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Whereas a function of mitochondrial and ER-specific Bcl-2 in apoptosis has been established in multiple studies, corresponding data for ciPCD do not exist. We utilized Bcl-2 constructs specifically localizing to mitochondria (Bcl-2 ActA), the ER (Bcl-2 cb5), both (Bcl-2 WT) or the cytosol/nucleus (Bcl-2 ΔTM) and determined their protective effect on ceramide-mediated ciPCD in transiently and stably transfected Jurkat cells. Expression of the constructs was verified by immunoblots. Ceramide-mediated ciPCD was induced by treatment with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor and determined by flow cytometric measurement of propidium iodide uptake as well as by optical analysis of cell morphology. Only wildtype Bcl-2 had the ability to efficiently protect from ceramide-mediated ciPCD, whereas expression of Bcl-2 solely at mitochondria, the ER, or the cytosol/nucleus did not prevent ceramide-mediated ciPCD. Our data suggest a combined requirement for both mitochondria and the ER in the induction and the signaling pathways of ciPCD mediated by ceramide
[en] The drive to understand how altered cellular metabolism and cancer are linked has caused a paradigm shift in the focus of cancer research. The discovery of a mutated metabolic enzyme, isocitrate dehydrogenase 1, that leads to accumulation of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate, provided significant direct evidence that dysfunctional metabolism plays an important role in oncogenesis. Striking parallels exist with the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (FH), a tumor suppressor, whose mutation is associated with the development of leiomyomata, renal cysts, and tumors. Loss of FH enzymatic activity results in accumulation of intracellular fumarate which has been proposed to act as a competitive inhibitor of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent oxygenases including the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) hydroxylases, thus activating oncogenic HIF pathways. Interestingly, our studies have questioned the role of HIF and have highlighted other candidate mechanisms, in particular the non-enzymatic modification of cysteine residues (succination) that could lead to disruption or loss of protein functions, dysfunctional cell metabolism and cell signaling. Here, we discuss the evidence for proposing fumarate as an onco-metabolite.
[en] Here, we review current evidence pointing to the function of VDAC1 in cell life and death, and highlight these functions in relation to cancer. Found at the outer mitochondrial membrane, VDAC1 assumes a crucial position in the cell, controlling the metabolic cross-talk between mitochondria and the rest of the cell. Moreover, its location at the boundary between the mitochondria and the cytosol enables VDAC1 to interact with proteins that mediate and regulate the integration of mitochondrial functions with other cellular activities. As a metabolite transporter, VDAC1 contributes to the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells. This is reflected by VDAC1 over-expression in many cancer types, and by inhibition of tumor development upon silencing VDAC1 expression. Along with regulating cellular energy production and metabolism, VDAC1 is also a key protein in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, participating in the release of apoptotic proteins and interacting with anti-apoptotic proteins. The involvement of VDAC1 in the release of apoptotic proteins located in the inter-membranal space is discussed, as is VDAC1 oligomerization as an important step in apoptosis induction. VDAC also serves as an anchor point for mitochondria-interacting proteins, some of which are also highly expressed in many cancers, such as hexokinase (HK), Bcl2, and Bcl-xL. By binding to VDAC, HK provides both metabolic benefit and apoptosis-suppressive capacity that offers the cell a proliferative advantage and increases its resistance to chemotherapy. VDAC1-based peptides that bind specifically to HK, Bcl2, or Bcl-xL abolished the cell’s abilities to bypass the apoptotic pathway. Moreover, these peptides promote cell death in a panel of genetically characterized cell lines derived from different human cancers. These and other functions point to VDAC1 as a rational target for the development of a new generation of therapeutics.