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[en] Highlights: • The first crystal structure of the human GFAP 1B domain was determined. • Two parallel coiled-coils pack together lengthwise in an antiparallel configuration. • H-bonds, salt bridges, and hydrophobic interactions stabilize the homotetramer. • Alexander disease mutations disrupt the interactions and the GFAP filament network. Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a homopolymeric type III intermediate filament (IF) that plays essential roles in cell migration, mitosis, development, and signaling in astrocytes and a specific type of glial cells. Its overexpression and genetic mutations lead to abnormal IF networks and accumulation of Rosenthal fibers, which results in the fatal neurodegenerative disorder Alexander disease. Herein, we present the first crystal structure of human GFAP spanning the central coiled-coil 1B domain at 2.5 Å resolution. The domain forms a tetramer comprising two equivalent parallel coiled-coil dimers that pack together in an antiparallel manner. Its assembly is stabilized by extensive networks of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, salt bridges, and hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, mapping of the GFAP mutations associated with Alexander disease reveals that most involve residues buried in the core of the interface, and are likely to disrupt the intermolecular interactions and/or introduce steric clashes, thereby decreasing GFAP solubility and promoting aggregation. Based on our structural analysis and previous biochemical studies, we propose that GFAP assembles in the A11 mode in which coiled-coil 1B dimers lie in close axial proximity in an antiparallel fashion to provide a stable tetrameric platform for the organization of the GFAP filament.
[en] Highlights: • Forced entry into M-phase drives replisome disassembly at stalled replication forks. • CDK activity and K48- and K63-linked ubiquitylation is required for mitotic replisome disassembly. • Mitotic replisome disassembly is mechanistically distinct from that of replication termination. The disassembly of eukaryotic replisome during replication termination is mediated by CRL-dependent poly-ubiquitylation of Mcm7 and p97 segregase. The replisome also disassembles at stalled or collapsed replication forks under certain stress conditions, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we discovered a novel pathway driving stepwise disassembly of the replisome at stalled replication forks after forced entry into M-phase using Xenopus egg extracts. This pathway was dependent on M-CDK activity and K48- and K63-linked poly-ubiquitylation but not on CRL and p97, which is different from known pathways. Furthermore, this pathway could not disassemble converged replisomes whose Mcm7 subunit had been poly-ubiquitylated without p97. These results suggest that there is a distinctive pathway for replisome disassembly when stalled replication forks persist into M-phase.
[en] A sensitive radioisotope dilution method was used to measure the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) content in macroplasmodia of the slime mold Physarum polycephalum during the mitotic cycle. The AdoMet pool had two maxima, one during mitosis, the other in the middle of G2 phase
[en] Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare childhood dysontogenetic intrathoracic neoplasm associated with an unfavourable clinical behaviour. We report pathological and cytogenetic findings in two cases of PPB at initial diagnosis and recurrence. Both tumors were classified as type III pneumoblastoma and histological findings were similar at diagnosis and relapse. In both cases, conventional cytogenetic techniques revealed complex numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities. Molecular cytogenetic analysis (interphase/metaphase FISH and multicolor FISH) identified accurately chromosomal aberrations. In one case, TP53 gene deletion was detected on metaphase FISH. To date, only few cytogenetic data have been published about PPB. The PPB genetic profile remains to be established and compared to others embryonal neoplasia. Our cytogenetic data are discussed reviewing cytogenetics PPBs published cases, illustrating the contribution of multicolor FISH in order to identify pathogenetically important recurrent aberrations in PPB
[en] Cell division, in which duplicated chromosomes are separated into two daughter cells, is the most dynamic event during cell proliferation. Chromosome movement is powered mainly by microtubules, which vary in morphology and are organized into characteristic structures according to mitotic progression. During the later stages of mitosis, antiparallel microtubules form the spindle midzone, and the irregular formation of the midzone often leads to failure of cytokinesis, giving rise to the unequal segregation of chromosomes. However, it is difficult to analyze the morphology of these microtubules because microtubules in the antiparallel overlaps of microtubule-plus ends in the midzone are embedded in highly electron-dense matrices, impeding the access of anti-tubulin antibodies to their epitopes during immunofluorescence staining. Here, we developed a novel method to visualize selectively antiparallel microtubule overlaps in the midzone. When cells are air-dried before fixation, aligned α-tubulin staining is observed and colocalized with PRC1 in the center of the midzone of anaphase and telophase cells, suggesting that antiparallel microtubule overlaps can be visualized by this method. In air-dried cells, mCherry-α-tubulin fluorescence and β-tubulin staining show almost the same pattern as α-tubulin staining in the midzone, suggesting that the selective visualization of antiparallel microtubule overlaps in air-dried cells is not attributed to an alteration of the antigenicity of α-tubulin. Taxol treatment extends the microtubule filaments of the midzone in air-dried cells, and nocodazole treatment conversely decreases the number of microtubules, suggesting that unstable microtubules are depolymerized during the air-drying method. It is of note that the air-drying method enables the detection of the disruption of the midzone and premature midzone formation upon Aurora B and Plk1 inhibition, respectively. These results suggest that the air-drying method is suitable for visualizing microtubules in the antiparallel overlaps of microtubule-plus ends of the midzone and for detecting their effects on midzone formation. - Highlights: • A novel method to visualize antiparallel microtubule overlaps is developed. • Unstable microtubules are depolymerized during an air-drying method. • This method can detect the effect of compounds on antiparallel microtubule overlaps.
[en] A MAPKK-like protein kinase TOPK expresses in a wide range of proliferating cells and tissues such as cancer cells and testis. However, details of this kinase are still uncovered. We investigated the intracellular distribution of TOPK and its association with cdk1/cyclin B and microtubules. In interphase cells, TOPK expresses in cytosol and nucleus without any significant association with microtubule networks. During mitosis, TOPK-Thr-9 was phosphorylated by cdk1/cyclin B and TOPK significantly associates with mitotic spindles. When TOPK expression was suppressed, formation of spindle midzone was thinned and dimmed and cytokinesis was disturbed. We propose that TOPK plays a role in the formation of spindle midzone and in cytokinesis
[en] Our tracer pathophysiology knowledge, allow to observe a very good correlation between SESTAMIBI intra tumoral capture and tumor strength. The visual analysis image doesn't allow to distinguish between low strength lesions and those of radio necrosis even when the semi quantitative analysis with ''standard'' fixation indices may to make the distinction. 3 refs
[en] The Chromosomal Passenger Complex (CPC) consisting of Aurora B kinase, INCENP, Survivin and Borealin, is essential for genomic stability by controlling multiple processes during both nuclear and cytoplasmic division. In mitosis it ensures accurate segregation of the duplicated chromosomes by regulating the mitotic checkpoint, destabilizing incorrectly attached spindle microtubules and by promoting the axial shortening of chromosomal arms in anaphase. During cytokinesis the CPC most likely prevents chromosome damage by imposing an abscission delay when a chromosome bridge connects the two daughter cells. Moreover, by controlling proper cytoplasmic division, the CPC averts tetraploidization. This review describes recent insights on how the CPC is capable of conducting its various functions in the dividing cell to ensure chromosomal stability.
[en] Highlights: • miR144-3p required direct binding to the 3′UTR of Tie2 to regulation the angiogenesis of HPS. • Upregulation of miR144-3p can inhibit PMVECs proliferation and mitosis. • miR144-3p may be useful for therapeutic strategies for HPS. Increasing evidence show microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of miR-144 in the angiogenesis of HPS, as well as to identify its underlying mechanism.
[en] Trivalent dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] has been shown to induce mitotic abnormalities, such as centrosome abnormality, multipolar spindles, multipolar division, and aneuploidy, in several cell lines. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these mitotic abnormalities, we investigated DMA(III)-mediated changes in histone H3 phosphorylation and localization of Aurora B kinase, which is a key molecule in cell mitosis. DMA(III) caused the phosphorylation of histone H3 (ser10) and was distributed predominantly in mitotic cells, especially in prometaphase cells. By contrast, most of the phospho-histone H3 was found to be localized in interphase cells after treatment with inorganic arsenite [iAs(III)], suggesting the involvement of a different pathway in phosphorylation. DMA(III) activated Aurora B kinase and slightly activated ERK MAP kinase. Phosphorylation of histone H3 by DMA(III) was effectively reduced by ZM447439 (Aurora kinase inhibitor) and slightly reduced by U0126 (MEK inhibitor). By contrast, iAs(III)-dependent histone H3 phosphorylation was markedly reduced by U0126. Aurora B kinase is generally localized in the midbody during telophase and plays an important role in cytokinesis. However, in some cells treated with DMA(III), Aurora B was not localized in the midbody of telophase cells. These findings suggested that DMA(III) induced a spindle abnormality, thereby activating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) through the Aurora B kinase pathway. In addition, cytokinesis was not completed because of the abnormal localization of Aurora B kinase by DMA(III), thereby resulting in the generation of multinucleated cells. These results provide insight into the mechanism of arsenic tumorigenesis.