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[en] The main technological processes of production of big castings of austenitic and pearlitic steels for power engineering, including nuclear power engineering, are shown. It is noted that application of cast parts in the NPP equipment permits to reduce liquid metal consumption, amount of machining and to exclude welding. A great attention is paid to improvement of the reinforced casting method, for example, for the NPP gate valve casings, by way of turning the mold filled with liquid metal by 90 deg. New processes of production of molds and mold rods, and new compositions of molding sand mixtures are considered. Perspective utilization of self-set molding mixtures containing organic and nonorganic binders is noted
[en] A method for forming foamed plastic articles which includes the steps of closing a mold; prepressurizing the mold cavity with gas to prevent premature diffusion of blowing gas from the material injected into the cavity; injecting a short shot of molten synthetic resin material containing a blowing agent into the cavity; venting a portion of the prepressurization gas during the injection step; and venting the remaining prepressurization gas from the mold cavity to a vacuum chamber means to allow expansion of the injected foamable resin material within the mold cavity, the vacuum drawing the resin material throughout the mold cavity. In addition, the vacuum chamber is coupled to the mold cavity through plural spaced passageways so that the vacuum is drawn at various locations throughout the cavity to thereby enhance the complete filling of the cavity with the injected material as it expands. The mold is vented following the injection step automatically at the expiration of a predetermined time following the closing of a nozzle of the injection apparatus. A mold for carrying out the process includes improved gas flow means for delivering gas to and venting gas from the mold cavity. The mold also includes improved sealing means for sealing the mold to maintain it in a pressurized state as desired
[en] Once the strand leaves the mold, the solidification of steel progresses due to the heat extracted in the secondary cooling zone of the continuous casting machine. In this zone, heat is extracted mainly by: the incidence of water from sprays, radiation to surroundings contact with rolls and run out water accumulated between rolls and strand. In this work, all these mechanisms are evaluated and, when it is possible, they are quantified. Methods which are usually employed to measures solidification profiles in the continuous casting machine are also reviewed. Finally, the incidence of secondary cooling on the quality of cast products is discussed. (Author) 90 refs
[en] The continuous casting mold plays the important role of receiving the liquid steel and allowing an uniform and defect free solidified skin to be developed. In this work, the different heat transfer mechanisms which are present from the liquid steel to the mold cooling water are reviewed. The effect of operating variables on heat extraction and the relationship between global and distributed heat flux are also analyzed. (Author) 116 refs
[en] The possibility of implementing natural emeralds to the stone in place technique in the manufacture of jewelry was evaluated using two silica samples, one commercial and other developed with natural silica sand, both thermally stabilized at 350°C. Raw materials and blend performances were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry and thermo-gravimetry, as well as through compression strength, permeability and thermal shock resistance tests. The sand/gypsum mixture with 68/32 ratio and the addition of 50wt% of water was selected as the most suitable to obtain the new investment, as well as 38% water for commercial investment. Finally, microcasting tests were carried out with a low melting point gold alloy (398°C) and simulation tests of this process were performed using the Solidcast® and Flowcast® software programs, it was observed full capacity of the alloy to fill the molds, as well as a minimum affectation of the emeralds.
[es]Se evaluó la posibilidad de aplicar esmeraldas naturales a la técnica de pre-engaste para la fabricación de joyería, empleando dos revestimientos base sílice, uno comercial y otro desarrollado con arena silícea natural, estabilizados térmicamente a 350°C. Las materias primas y los revestimientos se caracterizaron con ayuda de las técnicas de difracción de rayosX, microscopia electrónica de barrido y análisis calorimétrico diferencial y termogravimétrico, así como a través de pruebas de resistencia a la compresión, permeabilidad y resistencia al choque térmico. Se seleccionó la mezcla con relación arena/yeso 68/32 y adición del 50% en peso de agua como la más adecuada para la obtención del nuevo revestimiento, así como el 38% de agua para la mezcla comercial. Finalmente, se realizaron ensayos de microfundición con una aleación preciosa de bajo punto de fusión (398°C) y de simulación del proceso, con los softwares Solidcast® y Flowcast®, observándose total colabilidad de la aleación dentro de los moldes, así como mínima afectación cromática de las esmeraldas.
[en] A core is a separable part of the mould used to create openings and internal configuration in the casting that cannot be provided by the use of the pattern alone. Cores may be made of metal, plaster, graphite, core sand and ceramic materials. In the present study, Powder Injection Moulding techniques were used for producing various cores employing a fine fused silica powder. A composite binder comprising a major fraction of different molecular weight polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and minor fraction of very finely dispersed poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) derived from an emulsion was used for preparing the feedstock. Different trials were carried out to identify optimum conditions for various processing steps involved; such as feedstock preparation, injection moulding, de binding and firing. The cores were impregnated with a proprietary chemical to improve their strength. These cores had adequate strength and good collapsibility and did not produce harmful gases. (author)
[en] Considered is a problem of development and improvement of mixtures, as well as of antisticking coatings with the given parameters providing production of castings of the necessary quality. Requirements to properties of mixtures and antisticking coatings are formulated proceeding from the conditions of guaranteed production of qualitative steel castings with mass from 0.5 up to 20t and wall thickness from 60 up to 200 mm. Formation of film structure of binding compositions is studied, their marginal contact angle and surface tension are determined. In the result of work carried out on improvement of core sand and molding sand mixtures the labour productivity during the production of core and moldings has been increased in 20-25% in average, the quality has also been improved
[en] A problem of melt solidification in an ignot mould with heat insulation inserts is considered. The mathematic model accounts for the convective heat transfer in an ignot liqiuid core and in the liquid - solid region of two phase zone as well as heat exchange of the system with the environment. The effect of convectiVe heat transfer and thermoisolation properties of the inserts on the formation of a steel ignot is evaluated