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[en] Works are presented on: molecular biophysics, photochemistry, photobiology and radiobiology. (M.A.)
[pt]Apresentam-se trabalhos em: biofisica molecular, fotoquimica, fotobiologia e radiobiologia. (M.A.)
[en] The research activities of the Genetics and the Toxicology Divisions of the Institute for Genetics and Toxicology of Fissile Materials during the period January 1979 to December 1980 are decribed. In addition to scientific reports on the various research topics the report gives an overview of the external scientific and teaching activities of the staff members during the review period. The main emphasis of the toxicology program has been on studies of the radiotoxicology of the actinides and other heavy metals, especially in relation to chelation therapy and to the development of biochemical and physical methods for investigation of their metabolic behaviour. In the field of radiation genetics most of the interest has been focussed on the mechanisms of gene repair, gene regulation and the molecular biology of tumor viruses. (orig.)
[de]Es wird ueber die Taetigkeiten des Teilinstituts Genetik und des Teilinstituts Toxikologie innerhalb des Instituts fue Genetik und fuer Toxikologie von Spaltstoffen von Januar 1979 bis Dezember 1980 berichtet. Neben kurzen wissenschaftlichen Berichten ueber wichtige Forschungsergebnisse gibt der Report einen Ueberblick ueber saemtliche wissenschaftlichen und akademischen Aktivitaeten der Mitarbeiter waehrend des Berichtzeitraums. Schwerpunkte des Forschungsprogramms bilden Arbeiten ueber die Strahlentoxikologie von Actiniden und anderen Schwermetallensowie ihre Therapie, die Entwicklung biochemischer und physikalischer Methoden und ihre Anwendung auf diesem Gebiet. Im Bereich der strahlengenetischen Untersuchungen interessieren vor allem Fragen zu den Mechanismen der Genreparatur, Genregulation und zur molekularen Biologie von Tumorviren. (orig.)
[en] The problem of the origin of the asymmetry of biomolecules attracted many theoretical and experimental investigations. In spite of these studies the problem is still open. In this paper recent experiments which need careful repetitions are reviewed and some other experiments are suggested. The experiments involve studies related to different types of physical effects possibly causing asymmetry: weak interaction, Earth rotation, magnetic and electric fields, circularly polarized light, etc. (author)
[en] Chiral molecules leading to helical macromolecules seem to preserve information and extend it better. In the biological world RNA is the very paradigm for self-replication, elongation and autocatalytic editing. The nucleic acid itself is not chiral. It acquires its chirality by association with D-sugars. Although the chiral information or selectivity put in by the unit monomer is no longer of much interest to the biologists - they tend to leave it to the Darwinian selection principle to take care of it as illustrated by Frank's model - it is vital to understand the origin of chirality. There are three different approaches for the chiral origin of life: (1) Phenomenological, (2) Electromagnetic molecular and Coriolis forces and (3) Atomic or nuclear force, the neutral weak current. The phenomenological approach involves spontaneous symmetry breaking fluctuations in far for equilibrium systems or nucleation and crystallization. Chance plays a major role in the chiral molecule selected
[en] The structural analysis of glycoproteins is a challenging endeavor and is under steadily increasing demand, but only a very limited number of labs have the expertise required to accomplish this task. This tutorial is aimed at researchers from the fields of molecular biology and biochemistry that have discovered that glycoproteins are important in their biological research and are looking for the tools to elucidate their structure. It provides brief descriptions of the major and most common analytical techniques used in glycomics and glycoproteomics analysis, including explanations of the rationales for individual steps and references to published literature containing the experimental details necessary to carry out the analyses. Glycomics includes the comprehensive study of the structure and function of the glycans expressed in a given cell or organism along with identification of all the genes that encode glycoproteins and glycosyltransferases. Glycoproteomics which is subset of both glycomics and proteomics is the identification and characterization of proteins bearing carbohydrates as posttranslational modification. This tutorial is designed to ease entry into the glycomics and glycoproteomics field for those without prior carbohydrate analysis experience.
[en] As researchers strive to understand the interplay between the complex molecular systems that make up living cells, tools for characterizing the interactions between the various players involved have developed. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) plays an important role in building a molecular-level understanding of the structures of macromolecular systems that make up cells. SANS is widely applicable to the study of biological structures including, but by no means limited to, protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid complexes, lipid membranes, cellular scaffolding, and amyloid plaques. Here, we present a brief description of the technique as it is commonly applied to the study of biological systems and an overview instrumentation that is available at the various facilities around the world.