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[en] The possible interaction of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and irradiation on mouse lip mucosa was studied, with special interest for the influence of the route of administration of the drug, either by single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection or by 7 days continuous subcutaneous infusion. Apart from the possible modification by the drug of radiation-induced damage to the lip mucosa assessment was made of the systemic toxicity. No modification of the radiosensitivity of mouse lip mucosa nor of its repair capacity was observed with the use of 5-FU given either by i.p. injection or by continuous infusion. However, the combination of 5-FU and irradiation resulted in an increased systemic toxicity which was only seen when 5-FU was administered by an i.p. injection in close timing with irradiation. It is suggested that this increased systemic toxicity is caused by the combined effects of irradiation and 5-FU on the alimentary tract, although the mechanism could not be demonstrated. 27 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs
[en] The genetic changes in gastric adenocarcinoma are extremely complex and reliable tumor markers have not yet been identified. There are also remarkable geographical differences in the distribution of this disease. Our aim was to identify the most differentially regulated genes in 20 gastric adenocarcinomas from a Norwegian selection, compared to matched normal mucosa, and we have related our findings to prognosis, survival and chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Biopsies from gastric adenocarcinomas and adjacent normal gastric mucosa were obtained from 20 patients immediately following surgical resection of the tumor. Whole genome, cDNA microarray analysis was performed on the RNA isolated from the sample pairs to compare the gene expression profiles between the tumor against matched mucosa. The samples were microscopically examined to classify gastritis. The presence of H. pylori was examined using microscopy and immunohistochemistry. 130 genes showed differential regulation above a predefined cut-off level. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Claudin-1 (CLDN1) were the most consistently up-regulated genes in the tumors. Very high CLDN1 expression in the tumor was identified as an independent and significant predictor gene of reduced post-operative survival. There were distinctly different expression profiles between the tumor group and the control mucosa group, and the histological subsets of mixed type, diffuse type and intestinal type cancer demonstrated further sub-clustering. Up-regulated genes were mapped to cell-adhesion, collagen-related processes and angiogenesis, whereas normal intestinal functions such as digestion and excretion were associated with down-regulated genes. We relate the current findings to our previous study on the gene response of gastric epithelial cells to H. pylori infection. CLDN1 was highly up-regulated in gastric cancer, and CLDN1 expression was independently associated with a poor post-operative prognosis, and may have important prognostic value. IL-8 and CLDN1 may represent central links between the gene response seen in acute H. pylori infection of gastric epithelial cells, and ultimately gastric cancer
[en] We report two patients with ectopic gastric mucosa in the oesophagus in whom emergency contrast medium studies after traumatic endoscopy revealed broad, flat depressions on the right lateral wall of the upper oesophagus that could initially be mistaken for ulcers or even intramural dissections. However, the appearance and location of these lesions is so characteristic of ectopic gastric mucosa that confirmation with endoscopic biopsy specimens probably is not required in asymptomatic patients
[en] The radiologic findings of prolapsed gastric mucosa through gastrojejunostomy stoma after gastrectomy is very characteristic, but recurrent gastric cancer, retrograde jejunogastric intussusception, and Hofmeister defect should be differentiated from it because of their similar postoperative upper gastrointestinal series findings. The author reports 3 cases of prolapsed gastric mucosa through gastrojejunostomy stoma after Hofmeister's gastrectomy with brief review of the literature
[en] Leukotrienes (LT) mediate allergic and inflammatory processes. Previously, we identified significant changes in the expression pattern of LT receptors in the gastric mucosa after eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and LT receptors in gastric cancer (GC). The expression of 5-LOX and receptors for LTB4 (BLT-1, BLT-2) and cysteinyl-LT (CysLT-1, CysLT-2) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GC samples of 35 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy and in 29 tumor-free tissue specimens from gastric mucosa. Male-to-female ratio was 24:11. The median age was 70 years (range 34–91). Twenty-two patients had GC of intestinal, six of diffuse, six of mixed and one of undifferentiated type. The IHC analysis showed a nearly ubiquitous expression of studied proteins in GC (88–97%) and in tumor-free specimens as well (89–100%). An increase in the immunoreactive score of both BLT receptors and CysLT-1 was observed in GC compared to tumor-free gastric mucosa (p < 0.001 for BLT-1; p < 0.01 for BLT-2 and CysLT-1, Mann-Whitney U-test). No differences in the IHC expression of 5-LOX and CsyLT-2 were observed between GC and tumor-free mucosa. The expression of BLT-2, CysLT-1 and CysLT-2 was increased in GC of intestinal type when compared to the diffuse type (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). LTB4 receptors and CysLT-1 are up-regulated in GC tissue implying a role in gastric carcinogenesis
[en] Oral mucositis is a common unpreventable complication associated with chemoradiation therapy. Shuanghua Baihe tablets have been approved by the Chinese Food and Drug Administration for treating recurrent oral mucosa ulceration. This study assessed whether Shuanghua Baihe tablets could prevent oral mucositis during chemoradiation therapy for locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
[en] Intramural esophageal dissection (IED) is an uncommon disorder characterized by a separation between the esophageal mucosa and submucosa with or without perforation. IED is usually related with an abrupt increase in intraesophageal pressure, history of recent instrumentation, and a coagulation disorder. We report a case of IED showing extensive dissection into the wall of the stomach, which successfully subsided by conservative treatment.
[en] The incorporation of 3H-proline by epithelial and connective tissue elements of rat palatal mucosa was studied in order to investigate the relative levels of protein synthesis by the epithelium and underlying connective tissue cells. Following a sixty minutes incorporation of the radioactive tracer in vitro, it was found that the suprabasal cells had most grains per unit area. Furthermore, the grains were more concentrated over the cytoplasm than the nucleus. This was in contrast with the labeling of basal cells which had twice as many grains over the nucleoplasm than that over the cytoplasm. In intermediate cells; i.e., the spinous layer, the number of silver grains per unit area was decreased from that of the surprabasal cells. In area where desmosomes were more prominent, many grains were in touch with such desmosomes. However, the labeling appeared to be reduced as soon as the cells became flattened. Moreover, the epidermal keratohyalin granules were relatively free of grains. Except for certain intercellular surfaces the keratinized cells were generally free of grains. On the connective tissue side, silver grains were primarily localized over the fibroblasts with occasional grains over collagenous fibers were found over palatal muscle cells, neural elements and so on. Most grains over collagenous fibers were found in relation to mature collagen fibrils. Thus, protein synthesis in isolated mucosas of the rat palate apparent take place both in epithelial and connective elements. There were no apparent tissue alterations caused by the in vitro incorporation procedure utilized under conditions of this study. Key words: Electron microscopy, Radioautography, Protein synthesis, In vitro, Rat, Palate, 3H-poline
[en] A study is made of 46 patients with cutaneous and mucoseous malignant melanoma treated in the Department of Radiotherapy of. A.C. Camargo Hospital - Fundacao Antonio Prudente - Sao Paulo - Brazil, from 1960 to 1973. Radiotherapy was employed as a radical procedure in 9 patients, as a, remissive procedure in 10 and as an adjuvant pre-or post-operative therapeutic in 22 patients. Six patients were submitted to actnic hipophysectomy. One out of the cases submitted to radical radiotherapy showed complete response and six patients partial response. Seven out of the ten cases treated with paliative intention did not show symptomatology after radiotherapy that led them to treatment. Under the ever-existing conflict of the clinical literature and experimentation, it is found that there had not been estabilished a definite concept concerning radiosensibility of malignant melanomas yet. The different response to the radiation-therapy from one case to another makes the local prognostic unsafe. It is concluded that the role of radiotherapy has not been perfectly estabilished in the therapeutic approach of malignant melanoma and that prospective studies are needed to situate radiotherapy in the treatment of this disease. (Author)
[pt]Faz-se uma analise de 46 pacientes portadores de melanomas malignos cutaneos e de mucosa tratados no Departamento de Radioterapia do Hospital A.C.Camargo da Fundacao Antonio Prudente - Sao Paulo - Brasil, no periodo de 1960 a 1973. A Radioterapia foi empregada com finalidade radical em 9 pacientes, remissiva em 10 e como terapeutica adjuvante pre ou pos-operatoria em 22 pacientes. Seis pacientes foram submetidos a hipofisectomia actinica. Dos casos submetidos a radioterapia radical, um apresentou resposta completa, e 6 respostas parciais. Sete dos 10 casos tratados com intencao paliativa tiveram desaparecimento da sintomatologia que os levou a tratamento. Considera-se em base do conflito constante da literatura clinica e da experimentacao, que nao se estabeleceu ainda conceito definitivo em relacao a radiossensibilidade dos melanomas malignos. Nota-se a diversidade da resposta a irradiacao de um caso para outro, o que torna o prognostico terapeutico local inseguro. Conclui-se que o papel da radioterapia ainda nao esta perfeitamente estabelecido na abordagem terapeutica do melanoma maligno e que ha necessidade de estudos prospectivos para se situar de forma cabal a radioterapia no tratamento desta afeccao. (Autor)
[en] The purpose was to compare two-dimensional (2D) magnetic resonance pancreatography (MRP) with 3D MRP to evaluate intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN). Thirty-four patients (22 men, 12 women; age range, 45-80 years) with IPMN (n = 40) were examined with MRP on 2D and 3D sequences. Two readers independently reviewed the images to assess the overall image quality, artifacts, lesion location, communication with main pancreatic duct, and potential for malignancy. The readers assigned their confidence level (1-5) for predicting ductal communication of the lesion. The results of MRP were compared with endoscopic retrograde pancreatography and surgical and histopathologic findings. Studies obtained with 3D MRP were of significantly higher technical quality than those obtained with 2D MRP. Although 3D MRP showed higher area under the ROC curve (Az) values for predicting ductal communication of the lesion, there was no statistical significance between Az values of 2D and 3D MRP (Az for 2D = 0.821, 0.864 for readers 1 and 2, respectively, and Az for 3D= 0.964, 0.921). Accuracies for discriminating benign from malignant lesions were 70 and 67.5% (reader 1 and 2, respectively, for 2D) and 62.5 and 80.1% (3D). 3D MRP showed superior image quality to that of 2D MRP but did not increase the diagnostic accuracy for predicting ductal communication of the lesion. (orig.)