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[en] Tumor genotype plays a crucial role in clinical management of GIST. Whether genetic polymorphism of KIT may influence GIST patient outcome is unclear. We investigated the biological and clinical significance of the presence of KIT exon 10 variant (c.1621 A > C), KIT"L"5"4"1, in a transfected cell line (3 T3 L541) and in two retrospectively collected series of 109 GIST patients in total. The control group consisted of 60 healthy donors collected at the French department of blood transfusion. In the 3 T3 L541 cell line, KIT"L"5"4"1 protein exhibited a spontaneous phosphorylation status comparable to that of wild-type KIT but displayed a phosphorylation pattern of AKT and ERK1/2 that was found similar to that of the classical mutated forms of the KIT receptor. Of 109 patients enrolled in this retrospective translational research study, 24 (22 %) harboured KIT"L"5"4"1, similarly to the control group of healthy donors (n = 10 of 60, 17 %). A higher prevalence of the variant KIT"L"5"4"1 was observed in patients with metastatic status at diagnosis (KIT"L"5"4"1 correlated nine of 22 versus 15 of 87, p = 0.02). In addition, patients with KIT"L"5"4"1 and localized GIST had a higher rate of relapse at 5 years and lower relapse free survival at 5 years in univariate, as well as in multivariate analysis. Response rate and duration of response to imatinib was similar in KIT"L"5"4"1 and KIT"M"5"4"1 patients. KIT"L"5"4"1 genotype is associated with a higher risk of metastasis at diagnosis and a higher risk of relapse in GIST patients. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1817-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users
[en] Purpose: The main objective was to evaluate the usefulness of early ultrasonography for determining prognosis of patients with ischemic colitis. Materials and methods: We reviewed the histories of patients with diagnosis of ischemic colitis over a period of 11 years. Two hundred twenty nine patients with ischemic colitis were included. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and sonographic findings were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the outcome: mild (those who improved with conservative treatment) or severe (those who died or required surgery), and the findings of each group were compared. In addition, we developed a predictive model of multivariate logistic regression analysis, and then it was validated in a different population of 58 consecutive patients with ischemic colitis. Results: The mild ischemic colitis group consisted of 184 patients (age 74,7 ± 8,8 years), and the severe group of 45 patients (age 78,6 ± 7,7 years). More pancolitis (p = 0.005), altered pericolic fat (p = 0.032) and free fluid (p = 0.013) was observed in the severe ischemic colitis group compared with the mild group. Severe ischemic group had lower wall thickness (p = 0.020) and higher resistive index than mild group (p = 0.025). Multivariate analysis identified as protective factors to severe ischemic colitis: pain (p = 0.026), diarrhea (p = 0.034), rectal bleeding (p = 0.000), and hypertension (p = 0.001). Altered pericolic fat (p = 0.008) and pancolitis (p = 0.017) were sonographic findings significantly related to severe ischemic colitis. Our model correctly classified 88.4% of the study patients and 89.6% of the population of 58 patients used in validation. Conclusions: Sonographic features with clinical findings can predict the outcome of ischemic colitis. Our predictive model could differentiate properly between patients with mild or severe ischemic colitis.
[en] Postoperative recurrence remains the major cause of death after curative resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of postoperative complications on HCC recurrence after curative resection. The postoperative outcomes of 274 HCC patients who underwent curative resection were analysed retrospectively. Of the 247 HCC patients, 103 (37.6 %) patients developed postoperative complications. The occurrence of postoperative complications was found to be associated with a significantly higher tumor recurrence (76.2 % vs. 56.6 %, P = 0.002) and a lower 5-year overall survival rate (27.7 % vs. 42.1 %; P = 0.037) as compared with those without complications. Regarding the recurrence pattern, early recurrence (≤2 years) was more frequently seen in patients with complications than that in patients without complications (54.5 % vs.38.6 %; P = 0.011). Multivariate analysis indicated that postoperative complications occurrence was an independent risk factor for early recurrence (odds ratio [OR] 2.223; 95 % confidence intervals [95 % CI] 1.161–4.258, P = 0.016) and poor overall survival (OR 1.413; 95 % CI, 1.012–1.971, P = 0.042). The results of the present study indicate that the occurrence of postoperative complications is a predictive factor for HCC recurrence after curative hepatectomy, especially for early recurrence
[en] In this Letter we discuss the use of Granger causality to the analyze systems of coupled circular variables, by modifying a recently proposed method for multivariate analysis of causality. We show the application of the proposed approach on several Kuramoto systems, in particular one living on networks built by preferential attachment and a model for the transition from deeply to lightly anaesthetized states. Granger causalities describe the flow of information among variables.
[en] Recently it has been shown that elements of the unitary matrix determined by a quantum circuit can be computed by counting the number of common roots in the finite field ℤ2 for a certain set of multivariate polynomials over ℤ2. In this paper we present a C# package that allows a user to assemble a quantum circuit and to generate the multivariate polynomial set associated with the circuit. The generated polynomial system can further be converted to the canonical triangular involutive basis form, which is appropriate for counting the number of common roots of the polynomials.
[en] The role of ductular reaction (DR) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be elucidated. In this study, we tried to uncover possible effect by correlating peritumoral DR in a necroinflammatory microenvironment with postoperative prognosis in HCC. The expression of peritumoral DR/CK19 by immunohistochemistry, necroinflammation and fibrosis were assessed from 106 patients receiving curative resection for HCC. Prognostic values for these and other clinicopathologic factors were evaluated. Peritumoral DR significantly correlated with necroinflammation (r = 0.563, p = 3.4E-10), fibrosis (r = 0.435, p = 3.1E-06), AFP level (p = 0.010), HBsAg (p = 4.9E-4), BCLC stage (p = 0.003), TNM stage (p = 0.002), multiple nodules (p = 0.004), absence of tumor capsule (p = 0.027), severe microscopic vascular invasion (p = 0.031) and early recurrence (p = 0.010). Increased DR was significantly associated with decreased RFS/OS (p = 4.8E-04 and p = 2.6E-05, respectively) in univariate analysis and were identified as an independent prognostic factor (HR = 2.380, 95% CI = 1.250-4.534, p = 0.008 for RFS; HR = 4.294, 95% CI = 2.255-8.177, p = 9.3E-6 for OS) in multivariate analysis. These results suggested that peritumoral DR in a necroinflammatory microenvironment was a poor prognostic factor for HCC after resection
[en] This is the second paper of two reporting results from a study of the H I content and stellar properties of nearby galaxies detected by the Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA blind 21 cm line survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in a 2160 deg2 region of high galactic latitude sky covered by both surveys, in the general Virgo direction. Here, we analyze a complete H I flux-limited subset of 1624 objects with homogeneously measured 21 cm and multi-wavelength optical attributes extracted from the control sample of H I emitters in environments of low local galactic density assembled by Toribio et al. (Paper I). Strategies of multivariate data analysis are applied to this data set in order to (i) investigate the correlation structure of the space defined by an extensive set of potentially independent observables describing gas-rich systems, (ii) identify the intrinsic parameters that best define their neutral gas content, and (iii) explore the scaling relations arising from the joint distributions of the quantities most strongly correlated with the H I mass. The principal component analysis performed over a set of five galaxy properties reveals that they are strongly interrelated, supporting previous claims that nearby H I emitters show a high degree of correlation. The best predictors for the expected value of MHI are the diameter of the stellar disk, D25,r, followed by the total luminosity (both in the r band), and the maximum rotation speed, while morphological proxies such as color show only a moderately strong correlation with the gaseous content attenuated by observational error. Among the various inferred prescriptions, the simplest and most accurate is log(MHI/Msun) = 8.72 + 1.25 log(D25,r/kpc). We find a slope of -8.2 ± 0.5 for the relation between optical magnitude and log rotation speed, in good agreement with Tully-Fisher studies, as well as a log slope of 1.55 ± 0.06 for the H I mass-optical galaxy size relation. Given the homogeneity of the measurements and the completeness of our data set, the latter outcome suggests that the constancy of the average (hybrid) H I surface density advocated by some authors for the spiral population is just a crude approximation.
[en] This paper presents a systematic multivariate process capability index (MPCI) method, which may provide references for assuring and improving process quality levels while achieving an overall evaluation of process quality. The system method includes a spatial MPCI model for multivariate normal distribution data, MPCI model based on factor weight for multivariate no-normal distribution application, and MPCI model based on yield for yield application. At last, examples for calculating MPCI are given, and the experimental results show that this systematic method is effective and practical. (semiconductor technology)
[en] Cluster analysis is the name of group of multivariate techniques whose principal purpose is to distinguish similar entities from the characteristics they process.To study this analysis, there are several algorithms that can be used. Therefore, this topic focuses to discuss the algorithms, such as, similarity measures, and hierarchical clustering which includes single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage method. also, non-hierarchical clustering method, which is popular name K-mean method' will be discussed. Finally, this paper will be described the advantages and disadvantages of every methods
[en] Purpose: To assess the use of brachytherapy (BT) with or without external beam radiation (EBRT) in inoperable stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma in the United States and to determine the effect of BT on overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS). Methods and Materials: Data between 1998 and 2011 from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database were analyzed. Coarsened exact matching was used to adjust for differences in age and grade between patients who received BT and those who did not. Prognostic factors affecting OS and CSS were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier product-limit method and a Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results: A total of 460 patients with inoperable stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma treated with radiation therapy were identified. Radiation consisted of either EBRT (n=260) or BT with or without EBRT (n=200). The only factor associated with BT use was younger patient age (median age, 72 vs 76 years, P=.001). Patients who received BT had a higher 3-year OS (60% vs 47%, P<.001) and CSS (82% vs 74%, P=.032) compared with those who did not. On multivariate analysis, BT use was independently associated with an improved OS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.52-0.87) and CSS (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.39-0.93). When patients were matched on age, BT use remained significant on multivariate analysis for OS (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.87) and CSS (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.31-0.84). When matched on age and grade, BT remained independently associated with improved OS and CSS (OS HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.83; CSS HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.34-0.92). Conclusion: Brachytherapy is independently associated with improved OS and CSS. It should be considered as part of the treatment regimen for stage I inoperable endometrial cancer patients undergoing radiation.