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[en] The 'Two-chambered right ventricle' is a rare, but unique congenital cardiac anomaly characterized by subdivision of the right ventricle into proximal high pressure chamber and distal low pressure chamber by hypertrophied aberrant muscle bundles. The aberrant muscle bundles traverse the right ventricle from the region of crista supraventricular is to the lower part of the anterior wall of the right ventricle. The ' Two-chambered right ventricle' is usually associated with other congenital cardiac anomalies such as ventricular septal defect, pulmonary valvular stenosis, etc. Therefore this anomaly could be mistakenly diagnosed as Tetralogy of Fallot or isolated interventricular septal defect. The need to separate this entity from other types of infundibular stenosis is emphasized because of the important surgical implications. Authors recently experienced a case of the Two-chambered right ventricle' resulting from aberrant muscle bundles, that are associated with other cardiac anomalies i.e., pulmonary valvular stenosis, aysplastic tricuspid valve with regurgitation and partial anomalous pulmonary venous return to the right atrium. Here we present the findings of E.K.G., cardiac catheterization, simple chest pa, cine-right ventriculography, and autopsy together with a review of related articles.
[en] Objectives: To evaluate the clinic value of ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of muscle herniation. Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 26 patients with muscle herniation confirmed by surgery. All patients were examined by US and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively. The final histopathologic findings were retrospectively compared with the results of US and MRI. Results: The accuracy of ultrasonography and MRI were 92.3%(24/26) and 84.6%(22/26) respectively. There was no significant difference between two methods (χ2 = 0.25, P > 0.05). Conclusions: US can be used to observe the shape, size, location, internal echo and fascial defect of the mass of muscle herniation in a dynamical way. Ultrasound is a convenient method with high accuracy, it can be used as the first choice of imaging modality for the diagnosis of muscle herniation.
[en] Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) is a health problem that was results from a work and reported form repetitious movement and awkward postures. The aim of this study is identifying MSDs on pedicab drivers and analyse the radiologic features of the spine (vertebral column) related to MSDs. The research was an observational study with 30 pedicab drivers in Palembang. Musculoskeletal disorders were identified from a Nordic questionnaire whereas other factors were measured using a self-data questionnaire, and anthropometric measurements. A radiologic feature of vertebral column was taken on X-Ray examination of thoracolumbalis spine on lateral and anteroposterior position. The results of this study show that there was a significance difference between lower back pain with lumbar spondylosis p-value = 0.042 (p <α). A pedalling position on pedicab drivers that involves some muscles and bones that manifested to a radiologic feature of spine especially at lumbar spondylosis. (paper)
[en] Objective: The purpose of our study was to demonstrate that ultrasonography may allow a precise assessment of the course and relationships of the spinal accessory nerve (SAN). Material and methods: This study, initially undertaken in 7 cadavers, was followed by high-resolution ultrasonographic study in 15 volunteers (30 nerves) by two radiologists in consensus. The location, course and relations to the adjacent anatomic structures of the SAN were analyzed. Results: The precise course of the SAN between the lateroposterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the anterior border of the trapezius muscle could be identified by high-resolution ultrasonography. In contrast, clinical bone landmarks were not found helpful for the identification of the nerve. Conclusion: The SAN can be clearly depicted by means of ultrasonography. Knowledge of the nerve's precise location, which may evidence individual variations, may have useful clinical applications
[en] GLUT4 is unique among specialized glucose transporters in being exclusively expressed in muscle and adipocytes. In the absence of insulin the distribution of GLUT4 is preferentially intracellular and insulin stimulation results in the movement of GLUT4 containing vesicles to the plasma membrane. This process is responsible for the insulin stimulation of glucose uptake in muscle and fat. While signalling pathways triggering the translocation of GLUT4 are well understood, the mechanisms regulating the intracellular retention of GLUT4 are less well understood. Here we report a role for β-catenin in this process. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes in which β-catenin is depleted, the levels of GLUT4 at and near the plasma membrane rise in unstimulated cells while the subsequent increase in GLUT4 at the plasma membrane upon insulin stimulation is reduced. Small molecule approaches to acutely activate or inhibit β-catenin give results that support the results obtained with siRNA and these changes are accompanied by matching changes in glucose transport into these cells. Together these results indicate that β-catenin is a previously unrecognized regulator of the mechanisms that control the insulin sensitive pool of GLUT4 transporters inside these adipocyte cells.
[en] Poland's syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by partial or complete absence of the pectoralis major muscle. We report a case of Poland's syndrome in which the pectoralis major muscle was not visualized on mammography and absence of it was confirmed by ultrasonography.
[en] Skeletal muscles produce contractile motions and a couple of skeletal muscles antagonistically arranged are required to create bidirectional active movements. The musculoskeletal system is mainly composed of two skeletal muscles, joint, bones and tendons, and thus, a joint performs active bidirectional rotations. Likewise, twisted and coiled soft actuator (called TCA in this study) exhibits only unidirectional actuation, and two TCAs in antagonistic structure can produce bidirectional active motions. However, the TCA exhibits characteristics similar to that of tension coil spring, and it diminishes the available force and displacement from two TCAs in the antagonistic structure. In this study, a dual spiral pulley is proposed to overcome the limitations of TCAs. In the first, the artificial musculoskeletal actuation module (AMAM) is fabricated by integrating two spandex-based TCA (called STCA in this paper) bundles with the dual spiral pulley. The AMAM is experimentally tested, and its feasibility is validated. In addition, a robotic arm was developed with the AMAM, and successfully demonstrated full biceps curl and triceps kickback motions. (paper)
[en] 6 cases of rectus sheath hematoma were correctly diagnosed by ultrasound. 2 cases had bilateral rectus sheath hematoma and 4 cases were unilateral. On ultrasound finding, relatively well defined oval or spindle like cystic mass situated in the area of rectus muscle on all cases. Ultrasound examination may give more definite diagnosis and extension rectus sheath hematoma and also helpful to follow up study of hematoma