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[en] The Rossing uranium deposit is the only one currently being mined in Namibia. Construction began in 1974 and production started in 1979. Current production is close to 4800 s.t. U3O8 per annum. About 160 000 mt of ore and waste are removed from the open pit every day. Each truck load is radiometrically scanned to determine ore grade and is discharged either directly into the primary crusher or into low-grade stockpiles. The uranium is extracted in a sulphuric acid leaching plant and upgraded in an ion exchange and solvent extraction plant. An ion exchange plant recovers uranium from the tailings solution. Three thousand people are employed at the mine, most living in the nearby town site. Employee training and development are emphasized. Employee health is carefully monitored; no occupationally-related disease has been reported. Rossing contributes one third of the GNP of Namibia. (L.L.)
[en] The paper describes small-scale goat production in Omusati region, Namibia by considering the objectives, husbandry practices, indicators of productivity and barriers to small-scale goat development. The study is based on a questionnaire survey of sixty small-scale farmers keeping goats in Onesi and Ruacana constituencies. The results show that small-scale farmers (83%) mainly keep goats for prestige and as a store of wealth. The goats are kept under the communal grazing system, with limited supplementation (27%). On average 20 to 40 goats comprising mainly of local breeds and a few mixed breeds (local and Boer goats) are reared. The average kidding percentage is 42% with a kid mortality rate of 60% and average adult mortality rate of 27%. Limited marketing of goats occurs mainly in times of financial need and goat off-take rate is about 17.6%. The goats are consumed during important social events. Milk output is low and milking is done by boys not adults and goat milk collected is used by the household to feed children. Few farmers deworm their goats or control diseases in their stock. The major barriers to small-scale goat production in the study area include: (i) feeding, (ii) disease control; (iii) marketing, (iv) breeding and v) access to water and grazing land. The general strategy should focus on increasing productivity through improved extension services focusing on husbandry practices such as feeding, disease control (to reduce mortalities), and marketing services (to increase off-take). Deeper analysis of the of production parameters regarding kidding rate, prolificacy, mortality rate and off-take rates shows that productivity levels on small-scale goat production farms are low compared to other semi-arid regions in Sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, in order to improve the performance of small-scale goat production in the study area, there is a need to increase kidding, prolificacy and off-take rates and to reduce mortality rates especially by utilizing veterinary inputs (disease control) and improving feeding through livestock extension services. This should be accompanied by improvements in the breeding stock and marketing arrangements for goats, and by access to rangeland with adequate water and grazing. Through livestock extension services, small-scale farmers should be encouraged to adopt a number of existing animal husbandry technologies such as: (i) preservation and utilization of crop residues for supplementary feeding; (ii) de-worming of livestock; (iii) take farming as a business and learn to market their goats and livestock regularly utilize market incentive schemes; and (iv) rotational grazing on communal rangelands. The lack of record keeping among small-scale farmers needs attention in particular in view of the globalization of agricultural markets, which may require farm records for traceability of products. The need for reliable and globally acceptable recording systems will therefore become inevitable for globally traded products. The government through extension service should promote record keeping among farming communities and organizations including small-scale goat farmers. It should also link recording keeping to institutions (universities e.g. UNAM) with technical capacity to process the data in timely manner and interpret the results for farmers' immediate use in management decisions. Finally, there is great potential for goats to contribute more to the livelihood of the people in the NCAs. Early and major productivity gains can come through improved husbandry practices (feeding), veterinary services (to reduce losses to diseases) and marketing (to increase off-take). Breed improvement is a possibility but takes time and sustainability is in low-input smallholder conditions is uncertain. (author)
[en] Conclusions: • Namibia wishes to be a world class producer of Uranium and a prosperous country to achieve the Nation’s 2030 Vision. • The Government and the Uranium Industry formed a Smart Partnership to protect our ‘Brand’. • The Government and the Uranium Industry are committed to implement ‘world best practices’. • Namibia will be guided by the IAEA and the WNA.
[en] There are great challenges and difficulties in uranium geology work because of large area grass covered land and few outcrops in Happiness valley district in Namibia. To overcome the problems above, AMT method is undertaken to carry out profile investigation. After finding out electric parameters, different lithologic interfaces were divided, two fracture zones and one anticline structure were, this works laid the ground for the exploration of uranium deposit in Namibia and shew that AMT method is an effective one in finding underground structures. (authors)
[en] Decadal variability in the Botswana High and its relationships with rainfall, temperature and circulation over the southern African region are examined. This High exists in the mid-troposphere over subtropical southern Africa from early spring through to early autumn. Although its seasonal and interannual variability have been previously studied, lower frequency variability in the Botswana High has not. An EOF analysis of 500 hPa geopotential height from the NCEP Twentieth Century reanalyses reveals two modes both of which display substantial decadal to multidecadal variability. These modes, which explain almost 90% of the variance, reflect shifts in the summer core position of the High over central Namibia / western Botswana and in its strength. This decadal variability in the Botswana High is associated with sizeable changes in regional rainfall and surface temperature as well as changes in the onshore flow of moist marine air and uplift over many parts of southern Africa. Such changes are large enough to have important impacts on regional society and may also obscure climate change signals over the region.
[en] Although a growing body of evidence demonstrates the public health burden of prostate cancer in SSA, relatively little is known about the underlying factors surrounding the low levels of testing for the disease in the context of this region. Using Namibia Demographic Health Survey dataset (NDHS, 2013), we examined the factors that influence men’s decision to screen for prostate cancer in Namibia. Methods. We use complementary log-log regression models to explore the determinants of screening for prostate cancer. We also corrected for the effect of unobserved heterogeneity that may affect screening behaviours at the cluster level. Results. The results show that health insurance coverage (OR = 2.95, ) is an important predictor of screening for prostate cancer in Namibia. In addition, higher education and discussing reproductive issues with a health worker (OR = 2.02, P = 0.05) were more likely to screening for prostate cancer. Conclusions. A universal health insurance scheme may be necessary to increase uptake of prostate cancer screening. However it needs to be acknowledged that expanded screening can have negative consequences and any allocation of scarce resources towards screening must be guided by evidence obtained from the local context about the costs and benefits of screening.
[en] This paper studied the trace element geochemical characteristics of the alaskite in the Gaudeanmus area, Namibia. According to the characteristics of trace elements, the source of alaskite shows the crust origin. Different type alaskites show different chondrite-normalized REE patterns which display variable trace element content, and their primative mantal-normalized trace element patterns are relative dispersed. All the above-mentioned indicates in some extent that the component of provenance area is inhomogenity and different provenance area produced different types alaskites. Therefore, alaskites in the region might be formed by partial melting of heterogeneous PreDamara basement rocks. (authors)