Results 1 - 10 of 3594
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[en] The nucleus of M31 is found to have zero polarization at wave-lengths of 1.2, 1.6 and 2.2 μm. This suggests the absence of non-thermal infrared radiation and dust close to the nucleus, if it is assumed that the magnetic field has a constant direction in the observed region. (author)
[en] We report on high contrast near-infrared (∼2.2 μm) observations of Vega obtained with the Palomar Fiber Nuller, a dual sub-aperture rotating coronagraph installed at the Palomar Hale telescope. The data show consistent astrophysical null depth measurements at the ≅ 10-3 level or below for three different baseline orientations spanning 60 deg in azimuth, with individual 1σ uncertainties ≤7 x 10-4. These high cancellation and accuracy levels translate into a dynamic range greater than 1000:1 inside the diffraction limit of the 5 m telescope beam. Such high contrast performance is unprecedented in the near-infrared and provides improved constraints on Vega's immediate (≅20 to 250 mas, or ≅0.15 to 2 AU) environment. In particular, our measurements rule out any potential companion in the [0.25-1 AU] region contributing more than 1% of the overall near-infrared stellar flux, with limits as low as 0.2% near 0.6 AU. These are the best upper limits established so far by direct detection for a companion to Vega in this inner region. We also conclude that any dust population contributing a significant (≥1%) near-infrared thermal excess can arise only within 0.2 AU of the star, and that it must consist of much smaller grains than in the solar zodiacal cloud. Dust emission from farther than ≅2 AU is also not ruled out by our observations, but would have to originate in strong scattering, pointing again to very small grains.
[en] The results of observations of 8 carbon stars for 1-2.5 μm wavelengths are presented. It is shown that some of the stars have infrared excess emission which is probably due to the circumstellar dustlike shells. The excess infrared emission depends on the carbon content of the corresponding stars. The found correlation contradicts the suggestion on the condensation of graphite particles in the atmospheres of carbon stars
[en] We analyze the submillimeter emission surrounding the new FU Orionis-type object, HBC 722. We present the first epoch of observations of the active environs of HBC 722, with imaging and spectroscopy from PACS, SPIRE, and HIFI on board the Herschel Space Observatory, as well as CO J = 2-1 and 350 μm imaging (SHARC-II) with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. The primary source of submillimeter continuum emission in the region-2MASS 20581767+4353310-is located 16'' south-southeast of the optical flaring source while the optical and near-infrared emission is dominated by HBC 722. A bipolar outflow extends over HBC 722; the most likely driver is the submillimeter source. We detect warm (100 K) and hot (246 K) CO emission in the surrounding region, evidence of outflow-driven heating in the vicinity. The region around HBC 722 itself shows little evidence of heating driven by the new outbursting source itself.
[en] Near-infrared photometric measurements for 131 Northern Galactic Cepheids are presented. The Cepheid light curves are sampled with an average of 22 measurements per star fully covering the phase of each Cepheid. The J, H, and K light curves for each Cepheid were uniformly interpolated to find the intensity mean magnitudes within each band. The results are consistent within ±1% for 26 stars in common with previous studies. This paper is the first in a projected series of two papers which will provide additional fundamental data for Cepheids in the Galaxy, namely, NIR photometry and line-of-sight extinction. In the course of this project, 93 additional variables were fortuitously observed within the Cepheid program fields, 82 of which have previously not been identified.
[en] We detected peaks of oscillatory power at 3 and ∼6.5 minutes in the umbra of the central sunspot of the active region NOAA AR 10707 in data obtained in the near-infrared (NIR) continuum at 1565.7 nm. The NIR data set captured umbral dynamics around 50 km below the τ500 = 1 level. The umbra does not oscillate as a whole, but rather in distinct parts that are distributed over the umbral surface. The most powerful oscillations, close to a period of ∼6.5, do not propagate upward. We noted a plethora of large umbral dots (UDs) that persisted for ≥30 minutes and stayed in the same locations. The peaks of oscillatory power above the detected UDs are located at 3 and 5 minute oscillations, but are very weak in comparison with the oscillations of ∼6.5 minutes.
[en] The surface composition of S-type asteroids can be determined using band parameters extracted from their near-infrared (NIR) spectra (0.7–2.50 μm) along with spectral calibrations derived from laboratory samples. In the past, these empirical equations have been obtained by combining NIR spectra of meteorite samples with information about their composition and mineral abundance. For these equations to give accurate results, the characteristics of the laboratory spectra they are derived from should be similar to those of asteroid spectral data (i.e., similar signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and wavelength range). Here we present new spectral calibrations that can be used to determine the mineral composition of ordinary chondrite-like S-type asteroids. Contrary to previous work, the S/N of the ordinary chondrite spectra used in this study has been decreased to recreate the S/N typically observed among asteroid spectra, allowing us to obtain more realistic results. In addition, the new equations have been derived for five wavelength ranges encompassed between 0.7 and 2.50 μm, making it possible to determine the composition of asteroids with incomplete data. The new spectral calibrations were tested using band parameters measured from the NIR spectrum of asteroid (25143) Itokawa, and comparing the results with laboratory measurements of the returned samples. We found that the spectrally derived olivine and pyroxene chemistry, which are given by the molar contents of fayalite (Fa) and ferrosilite (Fs), are in excellent agreement with the mean values measured from the samples (Fa28.6±1.1 and Fs23.1±2.2), with a maximum difference of 0.6 mol% for Fa and 1.4 mol% for Fs.