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[en] Diagnosis and treatment of acute pancreatitis is a complex issue where a cooperation of an interdisciplinary team is needed. A major breakthrough in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis was the Balthazar classification and then the CTSI (index of disease severity based on CT findings), also designed by Balthazar. The authors present a literature review and summarize their own experience in the treatmnet of acute pancreatitis. The also point out the most common mistakes, especially in the indication and timing of the methods. Finally, they present their view on a practical approach to the use of CT and percutaneous drainage in these patients.
[en] Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a rare, but serious complication, which has recently been more frequently reported. However, this entity is unfamiliar to radiologists. We report a case of BRONJ complicated by actinomycosis following a tooth extraction in a 68-year-old woman who has been treated with oral bisphosphonate for treatment of osteoporosis over the last 3 years and 3 months
[en] Our purpose was to compare the recurrence rate and survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who had elective transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), immediate preoperative TACE, or no treatment prior to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). A total of 132 patients with HCC had TACE prior to OLT. Eighteen patients had no TACE before OLT and functioned as a control group. The urgent group included 35 patients embolized less than 24 h before OLT and the elective group included 97 patients embolized greater than 1 day before transplantation. These groups were compared with regard to tumor staging, hepatic synthetic function, and post-TACE tumor necrosis and survival and recurrence rates.Patients were followed for a mean of 780 days post OLT (1-2912 days). The tumor staging was similar between groups but the Childs-Pugh score in the urgent and untreated group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The degree of necrosis at explant was also significantly different between the two treated groups, with an average 35% necrosis in the patients embolized less than 24 h before OLT vs 77% in the elective group (p < 0.002). Recurrence rate in the urgent group was 8 of 35 (23%) in a median of 580 days, 20 of 97 (21%) in a median of 539 days in the elective group, and 2 of 18 (11%) in a median of 331 days in the no-TACE group. Survival at 1, 3, and 5 years was 91%, 80%, and 72% in the elective group, 79%, 58%, and 39% in the urgent group, and 69%, 61%, and 41% in the no-TACE group, respectively. The urgent and no-TACE groups had significantly worse survival compared with the other groups; however, the tumor recurrence rates were statistically the same among all three groups. TACE within 24 h of OLT causes an average of 35% necrosis and elective TACE increases necrosis further to 77%. Despite this difference, the tumor recurrence rate in the three groups is equivalent and no different from that in the group that received no treatment before OLT. The decreased survival in the immediate and no-TACE groups was due to non-cancer-related deaths
[en] Hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) plays an essential role in the adaptive response of cells to hypoxia and is associated with aggressive tumour behaviour. We have shown p27kip1, which is generally reduced in endometrial cancer, to be re-expressed in hypoxic regions. This possibly contributes to survival of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of HIF-1α and p27kip expression in patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer. Expression levels of HIF-1α, CAIX, Glut-1, and p27kip1 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Percentage of positive cells, staining pattern (perinecrotic, diffuse, or mixed) and presence of necrosis were noted. Necrosis was correlated with shortened disease free survival (DFS) (p = 0.008) and overall survival (OS) (p = 0.045). For DFS, perinecrotic HIF-1α expression was also prognostic (p = 0.044). Moreover, high p27kip1 expression was an additional prognostic factor for these patients with perinecrotic HIF-1α expression. In multivariate Cox regression, perinecrotic HIF-expression emerged as an independent prognostic factor. Perinecrotic HIF-1α expression was significantly associated with CAIX and Glut-1 expression, pointing towards functional HIF-1. In patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer, necrosis and necrosis-related expression of HIF-1α are important prognostic factors. More aggressive adjuvant treatment might be necessary to improve the outcome of patients with these characteristics
[en] Genetic polymorphisms in the promoter region of the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) gene can regulate gene expression and have been associated with inflammatory and malignant conditions. We have investigated two polymorphisms in the promoter of the TNF gene (-308 G>A and -238 G>A) for their role in breast cancer susceptibility and severity by means of an allelic association study. Using a case–control study design, breast cancer patients (n = 709) and appropriate age-matched and sex-matched controls obtained from the Breast Screening Unit (n = 498) were genotyped for these TNF polymorphisms, using a high-throughput allelic discrimination method. Allele frequencies for both polymorphisms were similar in both breast cancer cases and controls. However, the -308 polymorphism was found to be associated with vascular invasion in breast tumours (P = 0.024). Comparison with other standard prognostic indices did not show any association for either genotype. We demonstrated no association between the -308G>A polymorphism and the -238G>A polymorphism in the promoter region of TNF and susceptibility to breast cancer, in a large North European population. However, the -308 G>A polymorphism was found to be associated with the presence of vascular invasion in breast tumours
[en] Radiation necrosis (RN) may closely mimic tumor progression or recurrence (TPR) in its clinical presentation and imaging findings in brain tumor patients. In this issue, Korchi et al describe imaging appearances of five consecutive cases of RN from 73 skull-based tumors treated with proton-beam radiotherapy (RT) in Switzerland. An important feature of this study is the selection of patients with extra-axial tumors that tend to recur locally. As such, intra-axial lesions detected following RT more likely represent radiation injury rather than TPR - an interesting model to study imaging findings of RN. Their findings are concordant with those seen with photon RT suggesting that the process of RN may be partly independent of underlying pathology and radiation modality. This study, however, does not help us understand how to distinguish these lesions from TPR. (author)
[en] The efficacy of bevacizumab has not been determined for treatment-refractory meningiomas. We treated meningiomas with low-dose bevacizumab and compared the radiological responses of non-irradiated meningiomas with previously irradiated meningiomas. In addition, we assessed intraparenchymal radiation necrosis following bevacizumab treatment. Six patients with meningiomas (three anaplastic, one atypical, and two grade I) who were previously treated with multiple sessions of radiotherapy and subsequently developed perilesional edema were treated with bevacizumab. Of six patients, two patients with anaplastic meningiomas developed three tumors following radiotherapy, which were defined as non-irradiated tumors. There were 12 pre-existing extra-axial tumors that were previously irradiated. Some of these tumors demonstrated adjacent intraparenchymal contrast enhancement. These tumors were defined as post-irradiated tumors. Four patients had intraparenchymal radiation necrosis. Low-dose bevacizumab was administered biweekly over 3–6 cycles to all patients. Four tumors decreased in contrast-enhanced volume, nine tumors were unchanged, and two tumors progressed. Of the three non-irradiated tumors, two tumors increased in volume (126 % and 198 %) and one tumor was stable (−5 %). The median reduction rates determined by contrast volume were −31 % and −71 % in post-irradiated tumors and radiation necrosis, respectively. Non-irradiated tumors had a significantly poorer response to bevacizumab than post-irradiated tumors and radiation necrosis (p = 0.0013 and p = 0.0005, respectively, Tukey-Kramer test). Low-dose bevacizumab did not demonstrate efficacy in the treatment of non-irradiated meningiomas. Responses to low-dose bevacizumab could be related to its effect on post-irradiation changes, rather than its effect on biologically active tumor tissue in post-irradiated meningiomas. Radiological responses to low-dose bevacizumab may distinguish biologically active tumors from post-irradiation changes in progressive meningiomas following radiotherapy
[en] Malignant lymphomas with central and/or peripheral low densities suggesting internal infarcted necrosis are rare, probably due to the same reason as that of normal lymph nodes in which spontaneous infarction seldom occurs because of coal vascular connection and low oxygen consumption of activated lymphocytes. We report eight cases of histologically proven non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, that showed necrotic low density within tumor mass in CT scan, prior to any treatment. The locations of necrotic lymphomas were mediastinum in 3 cases, abdomen in 4 cases, and neck in 1 case. The histologic types of the cases were diffuse histiocytic (Rappaport) in 4 cases, poorly differentiated lymphocytic types in 2 cases, lymphoblastic type in 1 caes, and mixed type (predominantly poorly differentiated lymphocytic) in 1 case. It seems that malignant lymphoma can be included in differential diagnosis of lymphadenopathy with central and/or peripheral necrotic low densities on CT.