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[en] In common industrial application, the use of a linear and static PLS soft sensor for online prediction and monitoring of industrial boiler is often preferred due to its simple and intuitive framework. However, process dynamics and time-variant factors can negatively affect the accuracy and reliability of PLS soft sensor over its long-term application in process industries. In this paper, development of adaptive soft sensor based on dynamic PLS method has been applied to an industrial water-tube boiler for continuous online prediction of Nitric Oxides emission. In the case study, it is found that the adaptive PLS soft sensor which includes lagged measurements of NOx emission in the model input can significantly improve the prediction accuracy and reliability by 72.7% relative to the performance of linear and static PLS soft sensor when tested on online dataset containing gradual and abrupt changes in the process operating conditions. (paper)
[en] Optical emission spectroscopy line-ratio methods are developed in order to estimate the absolute densities of nitrogen and oxygen atoms and metastable N2(A) molecules in the nitrogen late afterglow of an RF discharge, operating at p = 8 Torr, Q = 1 slm and P = 100 W, in what constitutes an extension of the typical domain of application of these methods. [N] is obtained from the first positive (1+) emission with calibration by NO titration, [O] from the ratio of the NOβ to 1+ bands, and [N2(A)] from the ratios of (i) the NOγ and NOβ bands, (ii) the second positive (2+) and NOβ bands and (iii) the 1+ and 2+ bands. In addition to the determination of the N, O and N2(A) absolute densities, the present investigation gives an indication on the order of magnitude of the rate coefficient of the very important reaction N2(X, v ⩾ 13) + O → NO + N at room temperature. (paper)
[en] Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gas signal that regulates many biological processes, and due to the high nitrogen recycling activity in the rhizosphere, NO is an important signaling molecule in this region. Thus, an understanding of the effect of NO on the rhizomicrobiome, especially on plant beneficial rhizobacteria, is important for the use of these bacteria in agriculture. In this study, the effect of exogenous NO on the beneficial rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 was investigated. The results showed that low concentrations of NO increased the ability of the strain SQR9 to form biofilms, while high concentrations of NO inhibited the growth of this bacterium. The SQR9 gene yflM encodes nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is used to synthesize NO, while the gene ykvO encodes a sepiapterin reductase that is used to synthesize tetrahydrobiopterin, the coenzyme of NOS. Isothermal titration calorimetry and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses demonstrated an interaction between YkvO and NADPH. SQR9 has two hmp genes, although only one was observed to be responsible for NO detoxification through oxidization. This study revealed the effect of NO on plant beneficial rhizobacterium and assessed the ability of this strain to adapt to exogenous NO, which will help to improve the application of this strain in agricultural production.
[en] Complete text of publication follows. We investigate the effects of a strengthened Brewer-Dobson circulation on the transport of nitric oxide (NO) produced by energetic particle precipitation. During periods of high geomagnetic activity, low energy electron precipitation is responsible for winter time ozone loss in the polar middle atmosphere between 30 and 40 km. However, as climate change is expected to increase the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, NO is expected to be transported to lower altitudes, becoming even more significant in the ozone budget. We use simulations with the chemistry climate model system ECHAM5/MESSy to compare present day effects of low energy electron precipitation with expected effects in a climate change scenario.
[en] Reducing NO from exhaust gas was studied with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) non-thermal plasma (NTP) generator. The measures to increase DBD denitration efficiency were analyzed. The DBD generator was used in either a mode where flue gas was directed through the discharge zone (direct oxidation), or a mode where produced ozonized air was injected in the flue gas stream (indirect oxidation). Following the approach of increasing energy efficiency, it can successfully seek a measure to increase denitration efficiency and reduce reactor energy consumption, so as to realize the purpose of saving energy and actual value of DBDP-based denitration. The result showed that denitrification efficiency is higher than the efficiency of desulfurization under whether direct oxidation or indirect oxidation. And indirect oxidation can greatly reduce power consumption. The removal efficiency of NO can be improved by the addition of ammonia. (authors)
[en] 3,3-Bis(2-nitroxyethyl) derivatives of 1,1′-[methylenebis(oxy)]bis(triaz-1-ene 2-oxides) were synthesized by either nucleophilic substitution of the bromine atoms of parent 3,3-bis(2- bromoethyl) compounds or nitration of structurally related 3,3-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) derivatives. The synthesized compounds comprise two different NO donating moieties, namely, oxytriaz- 1-ene 2-oxide and nitrate groups, and, therefore, can be regarded as a new type of NO-donating agents.
[en] Highlights: • Ob/ob; iNOS-KO mice exhibit increased hair regeneration compared with ob/ob mice. • INOS inhibitor is a novel candidate for the treatment of alopecia. • Nitric oxide is a novel inhibitor of anagen transition. Previous studies have shown that androgenic alopecia is associated with metabolic syndrome and diabetes. However, the detailed mechanism whereby diabetes causes alopecia still remains unclear. We focused on the inflammatory response that is caused by diabetes or obesity, given that inflammation is a risk factor for hair loss. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to be upregulated under conditions of acute or chronic inflammation. To clarify the potential role of iNOS in diabetes-related alopecia, we generated obese diabetic iNOS-deficient (ob/ob; iNOS-KO mice). We observed that ob/ob; iNOS-KO mice were potentiated for the transition from telogen (rest phase) to anagen (growth phase) in the hair cycle compared with iNOS-proficient ob/ob mice. To determine the effect of nitric oxide (NO) on the hair cycle, we administered an iNOS inhibitor intraperitoneally (compound 1400 W, 10 mg/kg) or topically (10% aminoguanidine) in ob/ob mice. We observed that iNOS inhibitors promoted anagen transition in ob/ob mice. Next, we administered an NO donor (S-nitrosoglutathione, GSNO), to test whether NO has the telogen elongation effects. The NO donor was sufficient to induce telogen elongation in wild-type mice. Together, our data indicate that iNOS-derived NO plays a role in telogen elongation under the inflammatory conditions associated with diabetes in mice.
[en] Purpose: The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on the radiosensitivity of SCK tumor cells in oxic and hypoxic environments in vitro were studied. Methods and Materials: NO was delivered to cell suspensions using the NO donors 2,2-diethyl-1-nitroso-oxyhydrazine sodium salt (DEA/NO), and a spermine/nitric oxide complex (SPER/NO), which release NO at half-lives of 2.1 min and 39 min at pH 7.4, respectively. The cells were suspended in media containing DEA/NO or SPER/NO for varying lengths of time under oxic or hypoxic conditions, irradiated, and the clonogenicity determined. Results: Both compounds markedly radiosensitized the hypoxic cells. The drug enhancement ratios (DER) for 0.1, 1.0, and 2.0 mM DEA/NO were 2.0, 2.3 and 3.0, respectively, and those for 0.1, 1.0, and 2.0 mM SPER/NO were 1.6, 2.3, and 2.8, respectively. Aerobic cells were not radiosensitized by DEA/NO or SPER/NO. When DEA/NO and SPER/NO were incubated in solution overnight to allow release of NO, they were found to have no radiosensitizing effect under hypoxic or oxic conditions indicating the sensitization by the NO donors was due to the NO molecule released from these drugs. At the higher concentrations, SPER/NO was found to be cytotoxic in aerobic conditions but not in hypoxic conditions. DEA/NO was only slightly toxic to the cells in both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Conclusions: NO released from NO donors DEA/NO and SPER/NO is as effective as oxygen to radiosensitize hypoxic cells in vitro. Its application to the radiosensitization of hypoxic cells in solid tumors remains to be investigated
[en] A single-image nitric-oxide molecular tagging velocimetry (NO-MTV) is reported and employed in a real air driven hypersonic shock tunnel and provided velocities of 3240 ± 170(5.2%) and 3030 ± 160(5.3%) m , insignificantly different from previous results of 3037 ± 98(3.2%) obtained by an ordinary multi-image MTV technique. The proposed methodology relies on an one-dimensional analytical description of the spatial intensity profile registered by a single MTV image. (paper)
[en] Two specific binding sites for doxorubicin were revealed at the plasma membrane of human erythrocytes on investigation of the binding of doxorubicin magnetic nanoconjugates. Free and conjugated doxorubicins modulated signal transduction in erythrocytes in a similar way. Both up-regulated nitric oxide and cyclic GMP (cGMP) and down-regulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) production and stabilize the membranes of damaged erythrocytes