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[en] The performance of three biofilters (BF1-BF3) packed with a new hybrid (inert/organic) packing material that consists of spherical argyle pellets covered with compost was examined in different operational scenarios and compared with a biofilter packed with pine bark (BF4). BF1, BF2 and BF4 were inoculated with an enriched microbial population, while BF3 was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. A gas mixture containing ammonia and six VOCs was fed to the reactors with N-NH3 loads ranging from 0 to 10 g N/m3 h and a VOCs load of around 10 g C/m3 h. A profound analysis of the fate of nitrogen was performed in all four reactors. Results show that the biofilters packed with the hybrid packing material and inoculated with the microbial pre-adapted population (BF1 and BF2) achieved the highest nitrification rates and VOCs removal efficiencies. In BF3, nitratation was inhibited during most of the study, while only slight evidence of nitrification could be observed in BF4. All four reactors were able to treat the VOCs mixture with efficiencies greater than 80% during the entire experimental period, regardless of the inlet ammonia load.
[en] This paper proposes real-time control strategies that can be applied in a full-scale advanced phase isolation ditch (APID) process. Real-time operation mode control (OMC) and aeration section control (ASC) strategies were developed to cope more stably with fluctuations in the influent loading and to increase the nitrification and denitrification reactions within the entire volume. The real-time OMC and ASC strategies were evaluated using mathematical models. When the NH_4-N in the reactor was maintained at a high level, appropriate control actions, such as continuing the aeration state, stopping the influent inflow and increasing the aeration section, were applied in the APID process. In contrast, when the NO_X-N in the reactor was maintained at a high level, the non-aeration state, influent inflow, and decreased aeration section were continued. It was concluded that stable operation in the APID process could be achieved by applying real-time OMC and ASC strategies developed in this study
[en] A laboratory incubation experiment at 15 deg. C was carried out with two applications of substrate as ammonium sulfate on the measurement of ammonium disappearance, nitrate formation rates and measurement of pH of different soils at Glasgow University, Glasgow, United Kingdom during 1995. The ammonium disappearance and nitrate formation rates were not significantly different between the first and second application in neutral soils, however, a significant inhibitory effect was observed in ammonium disappearance and nitrate formation rates of second application of ammonium sulfate in an acidic soil. The application of ammonium sulfate decreased pH of soils. The ammonium disappearance and nitrate formation rates were low in the soils samples having low pH. (author)
[en] In perspective of the issue of how to begin simultaneous nitrification, anammox, and denitrification (SNAD) rapidly, the sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was adopted to enrich ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anammox bacteria (AnAOB) rapidly and to inhibit nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) after three phases (67 days) of culture, and the impacts of different low carbon-nitrogen ratios (COD/N) on denitrification performance of the process were investigated. The results showed that preventing the accumulation of nitrite (NO2−-N) was the key to start SNAD successfully. The removal efficiencies of ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and total nitrogen (TN) in the system can reach more than 99% and 90%, respectively. Corresponding to COD/N = 0, 1 and 2, removal efficiencies of NH4+-N were 99.6%, 99.5%, and 98.5% respectively and removal efficiencies of TN were 93.8%, 97.2%, and 98.1%, respectively; the total nitrogen removal rate (TNRR) was greater than 0.29 kg N m−3 day−1. It indicates that the presence of a small amount of COD is beneficial to the denitrification of NO3−-N without affecting the effect of simultaneous nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation, which further improves the efficiency of nitrogen removal. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that the ratios of AOB, AnAOB, and denitrifying bacteria were 7.3%, 20.1%, and 7.66%, respectively. Candidatus Kuenenia was the only genus of the SNAD reactor with anaerobic ammonium oxidation. AOB, Anammox, and heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria were present in the system, while ammonia oxidation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation played a dominant role in the denitrification process.
[en] To elucidate the inhibitory effects of different herbicides on soil nitrification, eight widely used herbicides, i.e., acetochlor, atrazine, dicamba, isoproturon, paraquat, puma, tribenuron-methyl, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester (2,4-Dbe), which represent different chemical taxonomy were selected. Our results indicated that herbicide 2,4-Dbe displayed the best inhibitory effect on nitrification, followed by puma and tribenuron-methyl, whereas the remaining five herbicides exhibited less effect when 10 mg of active ingredient (A.I.) of every herbicide per kg of soil was applied in vegetable-planting soil. The inhibition appeared when 5–100 mg of A.I. 2,4-Dbe was employed, which was enhanced with an increment in its dose in both vegetable-planting and fluvo-aquic soils. However, the inhibitory effect of 10 mg of A. I. 2,4-Dbe exhibited obvious differences in these two types of soils, where the duration of inhibition was shorter as it only continued about a week in fluvo-aquic and calcic cambisols soils with strong nitrification activity but poorer effect as compared to 10 mg of dicyandiamide (DCD). In contrast, the duration of inhibition exceeded 2 months in dryland red and shajiang black soils with a weak nitrification activity which was equivalent to DCD. In addition, comparing with five nitrification inhibitors, 10 mg of 2,4-Dbe had better inhibition than the substituted pyrimidine (AM) and sulfocarbamide (SU), but was equivalent to DCD, nitrapirin, and 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) at their recommended application rates in dryland red soil. These obtained data clearly indicated that 2,4-Dbe could play a stronger role as a nitrification inhibitor in soils.
[en] Wastewater containing highly concentrated nitrogenous and aromatic compounds, such as aniline, is difficult to degrade and very toxic to microorganisms, especially to nitrifier. In order to remove both carbon and nitrogen from aniline wastewater, recently two biofilm reactors equipped with anaerobic-aerobic cycle and internal recirculation have demonstrated some potential in treating the wastewater. In such system, ammonification, methanogenesis and denitrification reactions occurred simultaneously in one anaerobic reactor, followed by COD removal and nitrification in the aerobic reactor. The effect of recirculation ratio on COD and nitrogen removal using such reactor arrangement was therefore investigated in the present work. The results showed that recirculation had little impact on the overall COD removal or denitrification activity in the anaerobic reactor at any tested ratio, 96-98% of overall COD removal efficiency was achieved with a final effluent COD value below 200 mg/L. But nitrification and TN removal were strongly affected by recirculation. The nitrification rate reached a maximum of 0.48 kg N/(m3 d) at recirculation ratio of 1 and complete nitrification was achieved at the recirculation ratios over 2. TN removal efficiency increased continuously and a sharp reduction of sludge production in the system was observed with increasing recirculation.
[en] Biological nitrogen removal by the use of Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs) is today an accepted and well proven model. The results of SBR performance on nitrogen removal have encouraged consultants, engineering companies and landfill operators to develop and build full scale SBR plants at a number of sites in Sweden. Two of these plants, Isaetra and Norsa, have been studied closely. The Norsa plant treats leachate at a controlled water temperature, while the Isaetra plant is exposed to temperature variation throughout the year. Both plants have very well proven nitrogen removal capacities, although winter conditions have an adverse impact on their performance. Typical nitrification efficiency is close to 100%, while the total nitrogen removal is about 90-95% under stable operation conditions. A good relationship between the nitrogen load and the nitrification rate has been observed at the Norsa SBR plant. The heavy metal content in the leachate is very low thanks to anaerobic precipitation inside the landfill into metal sulphides. The heavy metal content in the biological sludge is consequently also very low.
[en] We evaluated foliar and forest floor chemistry across a gradient of N deposition in the Northeast at 11 red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) sites in 1987/1988 and foliar and forest floor chemistry and basal area growth at six paired spruce and deciduous sites in 1999. The six red spruce plots were a subset of the original 1987/1988 spruce sites. In 1999, we observed a significant correlation between mean growing season temperature and red spruce basal area growth. Red spruce and deciduous foliar %N correlated significantly with N deposition. Although N deposition has not changed significantly from 1987/1988 to 1999, net nitrification potential decreased significantly at Whiteface. This decrease in net potential nitrification is not consistent with the N saturation hypothesis and suggests that non-N deposition controls, such as climatic factors and immobilization of down dead wood, might have limited N cycling. - Data from the 1999 remeasurement of the red spruce forests suggest that N deposition, to some extent, is continuing to influence red spruce across the northeastern US as illustrated by a significant correlation between N deposition and red spruce foliar %N. Our data also suggest that the decrease in forest floor %N and net nitrification potential across sites from 1987 to 1999 may be due to factors other than N deposition, such as climatic factors and N immobilization in fine woody material (<5 cm diameter)
[en] The soil organic matter decomposition, associated to the N mineralization and immobilization dynamic, are key processes in the soil-plant system. Hypothetically the different management systems have a significance influence over these processes. To study the effect of the management systems over the N mineralization and immobilization, were carried out laboratory assays on soil surface horizons samples from the Serie Metrenco, Family fine, mixed, mesic Typic Paleudults. Two management system, zero-tillage without burning (CL) and traditional burning residues (T). The study was done before and after fallow having a crop of oat and a wheat crop var. Kumpa at harvest. The samples were incubated at 15oC with a 85% water field capacity. The gross N mineralization, nitrification and immobilization were determined using the 15N isotopic dilution technique and the mirror image procedures. After a year the mineralization rates were higher in a soil under CL and the gross nitrification rates were higher in a soil under T. Statistical differences were not observed on the direct nitrification under both management systems. Nevertheless, statistical differences were observed for the ammonium immobilization for both till systems, being higher for zero tillage. The N transformation varied among management systems (AN)
[en] Highlights: • Complete OMPs mass balance in a combined system biological treatment plus PAC. • Improvement of the denitrification after PAC addition. • Enhancement of OMPs biotransformation after PAC addition. • Relation between hydrophobicity (log D) and sorption onto the PAC. • Progressive saturation of the activated carbon in the solid phase with the time. - Abstract: SeMPAC is an innovative process based on a membrane sequential batch reactor to which powdered activated carbon (PAC) is directly added. It was developed with the aim of obtaining a high quality effluent in terms of conventional pollutants and organic micropollutants (OMPs). High COD removal and nitrification efficiencies (>95%) were obtained already during the operation without PAC, although denitrification was enhanced by PAC addition. OMPs were followed in the solid and liquid matrixes so that biotransformation, sorption onto the sludge and adsorption onto the PAC could be assessed. Recalcitrant compounds, such as carbamazepine and diazepam, were readily removed only after PAC addition (>99%). Progressive saturation of PAC was observed, with increasing concentrations of OMPs in the solid phase. Removal efficiencies for recalcitrant compounds were used as indicators for new additions of PAC. An improvement in the moderately biodegradable OMPs removal was observed after PAC addition (e.g. fluoxetine, trimethoprim) which was attributed to the biofilm that grew onto the sorbent, as well as to adsorption onto PAC.