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[en] The role of the free surface on the stability of a wind driven, quasi-geostrophic ocean having an Ekman bottom layer is studied analytically using a perturbative procedure. It is shown that the growth rate range of the developing disturbances is reduced by an amount depending on the energetics of the free surfaces. In other words, the main free surface effect is to increase the stability of the whole system if this is compared with the rigid-lid ocean model
[en] Data collected by a buoy, moored in the Ligurian Sea about 27 nautical miles off the coast during the period 1 March-31 May, 1982, are analysed. The buoy was equipped by the Institute for Naval Automation (IAN) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) during the Mediterrenean Alpine Experiment (Medalpex), join program of the Alpine Experiment (Alpex). Exchanges of heat and mass across the air-sea interface are computed from the collected data and comparisons with existing values are made. The resulting agreement confirms the strong interaction between the sea and the atmosphere in some peculiar situation, and lends weight to the oceanographic hypotesis for the statistical occurrence of deeping of orographic cyclones in the Liguro-Provencal basin
[en] Basic characteristics of the Nile river and its impact on the Levantine Sea are presented and discussed. Both during the pre- and post-High Dam eras, the Nile was and still is one of the driving forces for the Levantine oceanographic system and presumably beyond, although in different ways. (author)
[en] Examples are given of comparisons of the 39Ar dating method with other methods for oceanic (mixing and aging) water studies. These show that 39Ar (and 85Kr) yield additional information that can not be obtained from other transient tracers. (author). 16 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab
[en] Oil spill models are combined with bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data to model a series of oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. A total of 104 oil spill simulations, computed for 11 different locations in the Levantine Basin, show that oil slicks will reach the coast of Cyprus in four (4) to seven (7) days in summer conditions. Oil slick trajectories are controlled by prevailing winds and current eddies. Based on these results, we support the use of chemical dispersants in the very few hours after large accidental oil spills. As a corollary, we show shoreline susceptibility to vary depending on: a) differences in coastline morphology and exposure to wave action, b) the existence of uplifted wave-cut platforms, coastal lagoons and pools, and c) the presence of tourist and protected environmental areas. Mitigation work should take into account the relatively high susceptibility of parts of the Eastern Mediterranean. - Highlights: • Oil spill simulations show oil slicks will spread in four (4) to seven (7) days in the Eastern Mediterranean during summer. • Oil slick trajectories are controlled by prevailing winds and current eddies. • Chemical dispersants should be used in the very few hours after large accidental oil spills. • Mitigation work should take into account the high susceptibility of parts of the coastline. - Simulations for eleven locations in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea show that oil slicks will spread to the coast in four (4) to seven (7) days, justifying the early use of oil dispersants to mitigate them.
[en] Complete text of publication follows. One legacy of von Humboldt's research was emphasis on the interconnectedness of nature. For von Humboldt, a key aim of 'terrestrial physics' was identifying grand-scale geophysical phenomena. In the early 20th century, with this goal in mind, leaders of the newly-formed American Geophysical Union attempted to reinforce connections between its disciplinary sections even as researchers successfully applied reductionist approaches to immediate challenges. One generation later, in the 1930s, the broadly-trained geophysicist M. King Hubbert sought to envision a geophysics curriculum that would embrace all of its core fields, from seismology, hydrology and geomagnetism to oceanography, volcanology, meteorology, and aeronomy. Until the early cold war, however, no North American university offered courses or pursued research in all of these fields. What enhanced cross-disciplinary research in the aftermath of World War II was the U.S. military's greatly increased interest in understanding earth's physical environment in order to support national defense (particularly involving guided missiles and submarine warfare). This paper explores the Pentagon's role in sustaining the physical environmental sciences, including how military patronage helped create interdisciplinary academic earth science research centers such as Columbia University's Lamont Geological Observatory.
[en] An aerosol -- capillary electrostatic model of a waterspout is submitted. The waterspout is treated as a long-living filament of aerosol plasma, which is formed at electric breakdown of interval between a charged cloud and a vertically floating cylinder, which is individual block of ocean's skeletal structures of revealed recently by author