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[en] The nuisance odour complaints received by the Department of Environment of Malaysia in 2006 are about 1082 cases. The trend shows that odor problems have become more and more acute every year. The sources of odor complaints come from many types of industries such as animal raring industry, chemical industries, rubber processing industries, municipal solid wastes (MSW), sewage treatment plants, palm oil industries, petroleum industries and etc. There are no specific odour control technology to solve the odour problem in the country. Some of the odour problems became more acute because the sources odour are located in places which are in the living area because lack of space. At the same time, there is no regulation concerning the specific odor parameter stated in the Environment Quality Acts 1974. The Department of Environment had drafted a regulation in order to monitor this problem, relating to the nuisance coming from these industries but until now the regulation still pending. The aim of this paper is to describe the present status of odour problem in Malaysia and the public exception of this problem. (author)
[en] This paper reports on the results of research aimed at solving the problem of on-line monitoring of odorant in natural gas mixtures in order to make the odorization process effective and ensure the safety of main gas pipeline exploitation. Our results show that using the infrared absorption spectroscopy method is promising for this purpose. Using radiation sources operating in the spectral range 6–15 µm allows us to obtain an odorant detection sensitivity of approximately 5 ppm in gas mixtures of different composition. (letter)
[en] The impact of ambient odour in the vicinity of the Semenyih MSW processing plant, commonly known as RDF plant, can be very negative to the nearby population, causing public restlessness and consequently affecting the business operation and sustainability of the plant. The precise source of the odour, types, emission level and the meteorological conditions are needed to predict and established the ambient odour level at the perimeter fence of the plant and address it with respect to the ambient standards. To develop the odour gas model for the purpose of treatment is very compulsory because in MSW odour it contain many component of chemical that contribute the smell. Upon modelling using an established package as well as site measurements, the odour level at the perimeter fence of the plant was deduced and found to be marginally high, above the normal ambient level. Based on this issue, a study was made to model odour using Ausplume Model. This paper will address and discuss the measurement of ambient gas odour, the dispersion modelling to establish the critical ambient emission level, as well as experimental validation using a simulated odour. The focus will be made on exploring the use of Ausplume modelling to develop the pattern of odour concentrations for various condition and times, as well as adapting the model for MSW odour controls. (author)
[en] This study sought to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and examine the characteristics of odor-active substances from polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-overlaid medium density fiberboard (MDF). A microchamber thermal extractor was used for sampling, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry was used to identify VOCs, and gas chromatography–olfactometry–mass spectrometry was used to analyze odor-active substances from PVC-overlaid MDF over 28 days. The results showed that 38 VOCs were identified from PVC-overlaid MDF, while only 23 odor-active substances were detected by gas chromatography–olfactometry, which indicated that some VOCs did not generate odor. The main VOCs released by PVC-overlaid MDF were aromatic hydrocarbons, ketones, and esters. There was a strong correlation between concentration and odor intensity of the main VOCs. When the total amount of odor-active substances was not significantly different, the overall odor intensity was determined by the intensity of the key odorants. The greater the intensity of the key odorants, the greater the overall odor intensity. There were eight main classes of odors from PVC-overlaid MDF: aromatic, fresh scent, fruity, sour, sweet, grassy, pungent, and special scent. Among them, the main odor characteristics were aromatic, sour, and fresh scent, which were primarily generated by toluene, ethylbenzene, phenanthrene, and dibutyl phthalate.
[en] Highlights: • Odour emissions from WWTPs and biosolids cause community discomfort • Odorants were identified using olfactory and chemical methods • Biosolids Processing Odour Wheels were generated using odorant and olfactory data • Odour Wheels can be used by the public as an accessible guide to identify odorants • Odour Wheels aid odour management by linking odorants with operational conditions Odorous emissions from wastewater biosolids processing can cause nuisance impacts to the surrounding community. Odour Wheels are an effective tool for environmental odour management, but have yet to be provided for wastewater biosolids processing. Emissions throughout the biosolids processing from eight wastewater treatment plants, each with different unit operation configurations, were surveyed to identify odorants present and their olfactory properties. Chemical and olfactory methods identified a range of odorants and odours emitted throughout biosolids processing. Within the biosolids processing locations studied Sulfur type odours, described as rotten eggs or cabbage, were typically encountered. However, there was also a varying presence of Rancid/putrid and Faecal/manure type odours. Odour Wheels were generated to communicate both the olfactory and chemical components of emissions which were measured throughout biosolids processing. Examples based on the operation of the eight wastewater treatment plants were used to demonstrate how the Odour Wheels can be used as an onsite odour management aid. The paper demonstrates how Odour Wheels can be prepared using chemical and olfactory measurements and then used to communicate olfactory properties, as well as identify the causes of nuisance emissions throughout biosolids processing at wastewater treatment plants. The linking of odours and odorants to process conditions throughout biosolids processing facilitates effective abatement and management practices.
[en] There is an increasing number of citizens’ complaints about odor nuisance due to production or service activity. High social awareness imposes pressure on entrepreneurs and service providers forcing them to undertake effective steps aimed at minimization of the effects of their activity, also with respect to emission of malodorous substances. The article presents information about various technologies used for gas deodorization. Known solutions can be included into two groups: technologies offering prevention of emissions, and methodological solutions that enable removal of malodorous substances from the stream of emitted gases. It is obvious that the selection of deodorization technologies is conditioned by many factors, and it should be preceded by an in-depth analysis of possibilities and limitations offered by various solutions. The aim of the article is presentation of the available gas deodorization technologies as to facilitate the potential investors with selection of the method of malodorous gases emission limitation, suitable for particular conditions.
[en] Malaysia is the second-largest producer and exporter of palm oil amounting to 39% of world palm oil production and 44% of world exports (MPOB, 2014). An enormous amount of palm oil mill effluent is released during palm oil milling, and the effluent causes a major odor problem. Many methods, such as biofiltering, can be adopted to manage the malodor. However, these methods are expensive and require high maintenance. The separation distance method can be used as an alternative due to its low cost and effectiveness. This research was conducted to verify the performance of three different methods, namely, in-field monitoring by using an olfactometer, CALPUFF model, and Gaussian plume model. Given that no research has compared the three methods, this study examined the effectiveness of the methods and determined which among them is suitable for use in Malaysia. The appropriate separation distances were 1.3 km for in-field monitoring, 1.2 km for the CALPUFF model, and 0.5 for the Gaussian plume model. These different values of separation distance were due to the various approaches involved in each method. This research determined an appropriate means to establish a proper separation distance for reducing odor nuisance in areas around palm oil mills.
[en] For hydrogen to become a consumer fuel for automotive and domestic power generation, safety is paramount. Today's hydrogen systems are built with inherent safety measures and multiple levels of protection. However, human senses, in particular, the sense of smell, is considered the ultimate safeguards against leaks. Since hydrogen is an odorless gas, use of odorants to detect leaks, as is done in case of natural gas, is obvious solution. The odorants required for hydrogen used in fuel cells have a unique requirement which must be met. This is because almost all of the commercial odorants used in gas leak detection contain sulfur which acts as poison for the catalysts used in hydrogen based fuel cells, most specifically for the PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane or proton exchange membrane) fuel cells. A possible solution to this problem is to use non-sulfur containing odorants. Chemical compounds based on mixtures of acrylic acid and nitrogen compounds have been adopted to achieve a sulfur-free odorization of a gas. It is, therefore, desired to have a method and system for hydrogen leak detection using odorant which can incorporate a uniform concentration of odorant in the hydrogen gas, when odorants are mixed in the hydrogen storage or delivery means. It is also desired to develop methods where the odorant is not added to the bulk hydrogen, keeping it free of the odorization additives. A series of novel solutions are proposed which address the issues raised above. These solutions are divided into three categories as follows: 1. Methods incorporating an odorant in the path of hydrogen leak as opposed to adding it to the hydrogen gas. 2. Methods where odorants are generated in-situ by chemical reaction with the leaking hydrogen 3. Methods of dispensing and storing odorants in high pressure hydrogen gas which release odorants to the gas at a uniform and predetermined rates. Use of one or more of the methods described here in conjunction with appropriate engineering solutions will assure the ultimate safety of hydrogen use as a commercial fuel. (O.M.)
[en] With the advent of the fuel cell technology and a drive for clean fuel, hydrogen gas is emerging as a leading candidate for the fuel of choice. For hydrogen to become a consumer fuel for automotive and domestic power generation, safety is paramount. It is, therefore, desired to have a method and system for hydrogen leak detection using odorant which can incorporate a uniform concentration of odorant in the hydrogen gas, when odorants are mixed in the hydrogen storage or delivery means. It is also desired to develop methods where the odorant is not added to the bulk hydrogen, keeping it free of the odorization additives. When odorants are not added to the hydrogen gas in the storage or delivery means, methods must be developed to incorporate odorant in the leaking gas so that leaks can be detected by small. Further, when odorants are not added to the stored hydrogen, it may also be desirable to observe leaks by sight by discoloration of the surface of the storage or transportation vessels. A series of novel solutions are proposed which address the issues raised above. These solutions are divided into three categories as follows: 1. Methods incorporating an odorant in the path of hydrogen leak as opposed to adding it to the hydrogen gas. 2. Methods where odorants are generated in-situ by chemical reaction with the leaking hydrogen 3. Methods of dispensing and storing odorants in high pressure hydrogen gas which release odorants to the gas at a uniform and predetermined rates. Use of one or more of the methods described here in conjunction with appropriate engineering solutions will assure the ultimate safety of hydrogen use as a commercial fuel. (authors)
[en] Malodorous odors, by definition, are unpleasant, irritating smells being a mixture of volatile chemical compounds that can be sensed at low concentrations. Due to the increasing problem of odor nuisance associated with odor sensations, and thus the need to remove them from the air, deodorization techniques are commonly used. Biofiltration is one of the methods of reducing odorants in the air stream. In the paper, the possibility of using an electronic nose as an alternative method to gas chromatography for the online monitoring and evaluation of efficiency of the n-butanol vapors biofiltration process in a transient state was investigated. Three calibration models were used in the research, i.e., multiple linear regression, principal component regression, and partial least-square regression. The obtained results were compared with the theoretical values. Graphical abstract: .