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[en] This paper presents the Dreamcatcher oil spill technology developed by National Oilwell Varco Canada. The products and services using this technology can save recycled tires from the landfill, which makes the planet a greener place. The products and services in question are those used for remediating and preventing soil and water contamination. The technological products use rubber tires and degrade the rubber into two compounds. The first is the smart crumb, which is a fine rubber crumb used for oil spill adsorption on land. The second is the aqua fiber, a fiber/rubber compound that is used to adsorb oil spills on water. Both are oleophilic (oil attracting) and hydrophobic (water repelling). This allows them to filter hydrocarbons quickly from water. After the smart crumb adsorbs hydrocarbons, it is then used to make asphalt products and the aqua fiber is used to replace sand and gravel in residential and commercial concrete and asphalt respectively.
[en] An oil spill model system is being developed in cooperation with several major oil companies and government agencies from the USA and Canada. The system, called ASAP, enables prediction of the trajectory of an oil spill in the water anywhere in the world. Within a half hour of notification of a spill, the ASAP user is able to evaluate a variety of spill response scenarios. The model also has the capability to be updated, based on observations of the oil distribution and composition. The model is being developed for operation on personal and laptop computers and will provide deterministic and stochastic spill forecast simulations. Embedded in the system are low resolution data for coastlines, bathymetry, currents, and statistical winds. The model system relies on an easy-to-use, mouse-driven graphical interface. Environmental data are user-selectable, and a library of oil types is included. The oil spill fates model allows the user to select which algorithms are to be used to predict the oil's drift, spread, evaporation, emulsification, shoreline interactions, dissolution, dispersion, and ice-oil interactions. A hypothetical session to set up a new map area with ASAP is outlined. ASAP is scheduled for completion in 1993
[en] The purpose of this study is to use wave-tank testing to predict spill behavior at sea. Spill researchers have used large outdoor wave tanks like Ohmsett to simulate at-sea conditions as the method of oil spill research and testing for more than 40 years. However, facilities such as Ohmsett, which is the largest of these wave tanks used for studying chemical dispersion of oil spills, are seen to be in need of further development to keep pace with new concerns. Over the past ten years, Ohmsett researchers have been committed to addressing decision-makers' questions concerning the inapplicability of bench-scale methods and the difficulty of sea tests. The factors they focused on were the limited operational effectiveness of dispersant s; the persistence of dispersant in treated oil slicks; procedures for monitoring effectiveness of dispersant applications; and the ability to extrapolate from bench-scale tests to predict dispersant performance at sea. Overall this paper presents the challenges of this work and briefly reviews the results so far.
[en] The report studies aspects of the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador's requirements for oil-spill prevention, response and remediation. The Canada-Newfoundland and Labrador Offshore Petroleum Board (C-NLOPB) is responsible and accountable for the industry's meeting its commitments in terms of monitoring, auditing and management. Comparisons with requirements in different regions, such as Norway, the United Kingdom, Australia and the United States demonstrate C-NLOPB practices are sound and comprehensive and meet international standards. Even though the standard established by the Board is high, further improvement is nevertheless needed and the report makes detailed recommendations for bringing this about. The four-tiered industry response system of safe practices:, safety culture, designs, standards and training and competency assurance programs is also augmented and enhanced by the C-NLOPB approval process.
[en] In-situ bioremediation of crude oil spills relies on either the indigenous microbes at the polluted site, whose degradative abilities are accelerated by adding such agents as fertilizers or dispersants, or on introducing pollutant-degrading microbes into the site (possibly accompanied by stimulatory chemicals). The bioremediation method to be used at a specific site must be selected to be suitable for that site and its environmental conditions. The basic components of bioremediation are outlined and the background information needed to understand the chemical and biological limitations of the technique are presented. Specifically, the microbial community, the crude oil substrate composition, and biological limiting factors are discussed. Generalized examples of bioremediation applications are illustrated. 10 refs
[en] Oil spilled onto water may eventually sink because it may be more dense than water (notably some Venezuelan crudes, heavy fuel oils, and residual products), lighter fractions of the oil may evaporate or burn off and leave a dense residue behind, or sediment particles may be incorporated into the oil in the surf zone of beaches. Some spill incidents are reviewed which indicate that oil sinking may be more widespread than is generally believed. The Haven incident at Genoa, Italy in 1991 involved explosions and a fire in a tanker carrying heavy Iranian crude. Surveys confirmed the presence of sunken oil offshore and along the coast. A series of test trawls recovered 1,435 kg of sunken oil, most of which was found in a rectangular area immediately southwest of the wreck measuring 141 km2. A similar experience was found in the grounding of the Honam Jade off South Korea. The main part of the oil spill was set on fire, and the residue from the fire sank and affected the local crab fishery. The scope for recovering sunken oil is severely limited, largely to confined areas of sheltered water
[en] This work highlights the effort made to clean up Wabamun Lake after it underwent an oil spill. It provides informative guidelines on how the impact was evaluated using the Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Technique (SCAT), and gives recommendations on the different processes involved in the cleanup. After the impacted area had been identified, the lake shoreline was divided into 7 major types and 191 segments. These segments were later examined separately to collect data on shoreline physical properties and oil contamination levels. The collected data were then used to determine which regions should have priority in the treatment process. The impacted regions were then categorized into three areas of priority, depending on the oiling levels and sensitivity of the shoreline segment. The treatment processes were followed by a post-treatment assessment phase, to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Post-treatment assessment revealed that 25 segments did not meet the treatment standards and needed further cleanup.
[en] In March 1989 the tanker Exxon Valdez grounded on a well-known reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound, resulting in an oil spill of nearly 11 million gallons (260,000 barrels). Much of the oil washed ashore, coating over 1,200 miles of shoreline, and damaged marine mammals, birds, and other life forms. Response to the spill revealed lack of preparedness, disagreement as to appropriate response tactics and technologies, and a confused decision-making structure. This article provides details of the Alaskan setting of the disaster. The historical conflict between economic development and environmental preservation that characterizes the region is emphasised. An outline is given of the apparent causes of this particular oil spill and then a number of strategic propositions concerning oil spills in general and their remediation are presented. In conclusion, it is argued briefly that, in general, effective and efficient maritime oil spill prevention and remediation require technological, logistic and decision-making mechanisms to be in place at all times on a global scale. This suggests that there should be an overall structural framework, composed of key sub-structures providing the necessary mechanisms. (U.K.)
[en] The rate of oil recovery in drum-skimming operations is dependent on the rate of cycling of the skimmer, the velocity of the recovery vessel on which the cycling drum is installed, and the absorbent material used. This paper reports that these conclusions were reached after analyzing results from a series of drum-skimming test performed at Al-Azhar University in Cairo. The velocity of the skimming vessel is important because there is a critical velocity, above which an hydraulic jump will form in the oil along an arc ahead of the skimming vessel. This causes oil to escape around the end of the booms, which are used to concentrate the oil as the vessel moves through the water. The rate of cycling of the drum is significant because, if it is too great, water is picked up by the absorbing element and the oil-removal efficiency is reduced