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[en] At the present technical level retorting is carried out so that an increase in specific air consumption results in an increase of oxygen ingress into the semi coking shaft. At the same time a direct relationship between the degree of volatiles pyrolysis and specific air consumption was observed. This regularity enables to assume that within the reaction volume there occurs most likely the thermo oxidative pyrolysis of volatile products, not the oxidation of oil shale as it is considered traditionally. The main source of oxygen ingress ed into the semi coking shaft at processing oil shale in retorts is the process of spent shale. This process is not fully elaborated for utilization in commercial scale and can not be arranged so that the ingress of oxygen into the smacking chamber could be eliminated. In case of a slower semi coke gasification process and reduced specific air consumption for gasification the absolute amount of oxygen ingress ed into the semi coking shaft also decreases. One of the efficient methods to decrease specific air consumption is to build furnaces into the semi coking chamber to obtain additional amount of heat carrier by combusting generator gas. The maximum effect is reached when steam-and-air blow is completely replaced by recycle gas: specific air consumption is reduced whereas recycle gas is deoxygenated in the cooling zone while passing through spent shale bed which has the temperature of about 500 deg C. Another possible source of oxygen to the semi coking shaft with heat carrier is production of flue gases by combusting recycle gas in burners built in retorts. We consider the recycle gas employed upon processing oil shale in retorts hardly to be an appreciable source of the oxygen ingress into the semi coking shaft. Additional amounts of residual oxygen containing in recycle gas fed into both cooling zone and furnaces are practically totally consumed at gas combusting and passing across the bed of semi coke heated up to approximately 500 deg C. Subsequently, in this case the increased amount of residual oxygen in the recycle gas should have no negative influence upon oil yield. 2 tabs., 25 refs
[en] The state of the petroleum industry in the United States was described. The United States has been the leading producer of crude oil for most of the last 135 years. However, the future of oil in the United States is probably one of continued decline, although the rates of that decline would depend heavily upon land-use decisions, such as the availability of areas such as coastal California and the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to exploration. Present proven reserves amount to about 20 BBO, expandable to about 90 BBO, using existing technology. The future will also depend upon economics which dictate the applications of technology that permit growth in existing fields. It is this growth that holds the greatest potential for additions to reserves in the United States. 21 figs
[en] In order to achieve excellence,outsourced maintenance contractors in Oil&Gas sector play a key role due to the important impact of their task on security, availability and energy consumption. This paper presents the process followed in order to implement a Supplier Development Program in a refinery using Company Maturity Model (CoMM) and the results obtained in three cases validating the method to obtain a strategic improvement project medium term grid. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology followed consists of constructing a CoMM capturing the knowledge existing in the refinery and applying it with three supplier improvement teams. Findings and conclusions have arised through an observation of the three processes and extracting common conclusions.The resulting CoMM has been used for self-assessment by three suppliers and has demonstrated its potential to define a medium-term improvement project road map validated by the customer. Furthermore, during the design and application processes, the contribution of CoMMs to the SECI process of knowledge management has bee Practical implications: The use of CoMMs in a service contractor context can be applied in other sectors. It contributes to alignment of targets between the supplier and customer companies and to knowledge sharing inside both firms. Originality/value: Maturity models in many transversal fields (CMMI, EFQM, BPMM, PEMM, etc.) have been thoroughly studied in the literature. Less effort has been made analysing the case of using maturity models constructed and implemented by a company for its specific purposes. In this paper, the process followed by a company to establish a Supplier Development Process using CoMMs is described.
[en] Three general categories of products from the Estonia Kukersite kerogen oil were defined: pure compounds, broad range concentrates, and sweet refinery feedstock. Product development and market research center on these three categories. Further attempts were made to identify and test chemical approaches for producing lower alkyl resorcinols (what the market requires) from higher alkyl resorcinols. The approaches and process conditions tested have not yet produced satisfactory results. Progress was made to interest industry in the phenolic products producible. A sample of oil from the Galoter retort was received from Estonia and characterization of this sample was initiated. The sample was batch extracted and results of yields and selectivity are reported
[en] The past, present, and future of Canadian conventional oil supply was presented with emphasis on conventional light and heavy crude oil from western Canada, and light oil from the east coast offshore. Projections for total crude oil and equivalent showed the expected changes to the year 2010. Three main factors were considered to have a direct bearing on the supply of each oil type: (1) The characteristics and size of the resource base for each component, (2) the technology available for exploration and production, and (3) the associated supply costs. Estimated resources were shown to expand as a result of technological innovations, price increases, and reductions in supply cost. In a 'current tech' scenario total supply of crude oil and equivalent was projected to peak around the year 2000 at 16% above 1993 levels. In a 'high tech' case, total supply of crude oil and equivalent was expected to increase steadily and remain above 360,000 cu.m./day for the remainder of the projection period (i.e. 2010), approximately 25% above 1993 production levels. 13 figs
[en] The following viewgraphs formed part of this presentation: (1) Sincor - vacuum gas oil quality (indicative), (2) indicative yields from Sincor VGO in FCC, and (3) cetane increase over synsat. A simplified process flow diagram of the Jose Industrial Complex project was also presented. The areas in operation and the areas under development were diagramed. A map showing the location of the Orinco extra heavy oil projects and the schematics of the Zuata heavy oil projects were also included. 3 tabs., 5 figs
[en] Sustainability has emerged as a keyword in all aspects of life whether it is resources or technologies and products or processes. One of the largest agricultural sector in ASEAN is oil palm; nearly a ton of waste biomass, including palm kernel shell and empty fruit bunches, is produced for every 25 kg of crude palm oil. Efficient utilization of these wastes would promote small and medium scale industries. High quality activated carbons were produced from palm kernel shells and evaluated their usefulness in energy storage applications; the palm kernel shell activated carbons gave one of the best supercapacitive charge storage performances. Besides, the performance of the materials are increased to many folds when hierarchical ceramic nanostructures were filled in their passive pores. We have further discovered formation of metallic cobalt at the palm kernel shell derived carbon surface, which has taken the supercapacitive charge storage to record values. Furthermore, these carbons worked well as an anode for lithium ion batteries. (author)
[en] Dry and presoaked canola quality 'Heera' seeds were treated with 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% EMS with three and six-hour mutagenic treatments. Five mutants with early maturity (93-95 days) as opposed to 140 days of the parent were evaluated in trials. EH-1 was found superior in yield potential; however, the yield was lower than the control. Several selections with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid and canola quality were identified from the cross, mutant EH-1 and NU-6 (mutant derivative). Selection NUDH-YJ-6 with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid, 3.6g test weight and high oil content (46%) was at par in seed yield but 17% higher in oil yield in the multi-location trials of four years during 2003-04 to 2006-07 at 10 locations in zone III and zone IV of India. The advance selection derived from EH1 x NU6 was crossed with large seed mutant PB7. Several '00' selections were developed and studied for their agronomic characters. Two selections along with checks were evaluated for two years during 2005-06 and 2006-07. Both these selections were resistant to white rust disease and gave seed and oil yield comparable to national check Varuna. Another selection NUD-YJ- 5 with canola characters of maturity like Indian mustard varieties with small seed size has been registered with the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (INGR NO-03034), ICAR, New Delhi. (author)
[en] Fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO) from lignocellulosic feedstocks has been successfully used as a fuel for boilers in heating applications. However, the oil quality limits application as a transport fuel due in part to the high oxygen and resulting acid content of the pyrolysis oil which complicates storage, handling and use in traditional petroleum based systems. Reduction of the acid or oxygen content can be accomplished via a number of refinery approaches from catalytic upgrading of the liquid post production to co-pyrolysis. While past reviews have focused on catalytic upgrading of the post-production oil, this work compares studies in post-production catalytic processes, in situ and ex situ pyrolysis vapour upgrading and co-pyrolysis. The review includes studies of “natural” additives/catalysts, sourced from waste biomass, as the co-pyrolysis material or catalyst. Additive/catalysts sourced from waste biomass are potentially a more sustainable approach than commercial catalysts. In general, upgrading the liquid post pyrolysis can improve quality; however, the overall oil yield decreases and cost increases due to the additional upgrading step. Co-pyrolysis and/or in and ex situ vapour upgrading during pyrolysis potentially enhance FPBO quality while recovering high-value chemicals.