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[en] A method of containing oil or like spillage floating on the surface of the sea or other waterway is described. It is achieved by means of a disposable self inflating boom assembly which is launched into the sea. Inflation of the assembly via control valves and supply lines is from a gas supply module, and both are launched from within a mobile assembly or container on a ship, platform, helicopter or by parachute from an aeroplane. Gas may be supplied from compressed gas cylinders, or by chemical reaction on contact with water, or from an air compressor or blower. Various arrangements of boom are described including having a membrane to create separately inflatable compartments, having at least one lower skirt, and using two adjacent boom assemblies. When the containment operation is completed the boom is recovered from the sea, cleaned and disposed of. (Author)
[en] In this study pressure test analysis in wells flowing under constant wellbore flowing pressure for homogeneous and naturally fractured gas reservoir using the TDS technique is introduced. Although, constant rate production is assumed in the development of the conventional well test analysis methods, constant pressure production conditions are sometimes used in the oil and gas industry. The constant pressure technique or rate transient analysis is more popular reckoned as decline curve analysis under which rate is allows to decline instead of wellbore pressure. The TDS technique, everyday more used even in the most recognized software packages although without using its trade brand name, uses the log-log plot to analyze pressure and pressure derivative test data to identify unique features from which exact analytical expression are derived to easily estimate reservoir and well parameters. For this case, the fingerprint characteristics from the log-log plot of the reciprocal rate and reciprocal rate derivative were employed to obtain the analytical expressions used for the interpretation analysis. Many simulation experiments demonstrate the accuracy of the new method. Synthetic examples are shown to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methodology
[en] An attempt is being made to review the utilisation of vegetable oils as alternative diesel fuel. Several encouraging information concerning their potentials can be made about the use of vegetable oil products as fuel as a result of research conducted in various countries. The use of straight, blended and transesterified vegetable oil are discussed. The economic analysis of vegetable oils as diesel substitute is also studied. (author). 55 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs
[en] Full text: All oil fields which are taking place in various provinces irrespective of their environment and efficiency of systems of development the most part of oil reserves it appears not realized. Therefore problems of oil fields rehabilitation after durable expoloritation let to bring it in a priority rank. It is necessary to note that in a direction of realization of residual reserves of horizon the research and production projects focused on residual reserves of opportunities of methods of recoverable factor are more and more enlarged. There are all bases to believe that the opportunities of other technical achievement including drilling and operation horizontal wells (H W) will be included in the coming years in works on an after treatment of oil fields
[en] Oil shale is the major indigenous fossil-fuel in Jordan: its predicted reserves, of about 5·1010 tonnes, should be sufficient to satisfy Jordan's energy requirements for several centuries. Jordanian oil shale has, on an average, a gross calorific value of between 5 and 7 MJ/kg, an oil yield of ∼ 10 %, and a sulfur content of approximately 3 % by weight of the raw shale (i.e. 7 to 9 % of the organic matter content). Using the oil shale as the input fuel, a multipurpose production process (i.e. retorting, electricity generation, thermal water-desalination, chemicals production as well as mineral extraction) could achieve high utilisation-factors of both its chemical and energy potentials. In the long-term, oil shale is the only indigenous energy resource that could reduce Jordan's dependence on imported crude oil and hence ease the pressure on the national economy. The conversion of oil shale into a liquid or gaseous fuel and raw materials will be of decisive importance in attempts to secure the future of energy supplies. So national efforts devoted to the exploration for, and harnessing more economically, this energy resource, while limiting the associated adverse environmental impacts, should be accelerated. (author)
[en] The crystallization behaviors of safflower and olive oils were investigated according to changes in volume and transmitted light intensity during isothermal storage at low temperature. The changes between the oils were significantly different even though their fatty acid compositions were similar, with oleic acid accounting for more than 75% (w/w) of the total oil. It was expected that minor components with high melting points would affect the crystallization behaviors of these oils. The crystallization processes of the oils were then analyzed using a kinetic model in which the oil crystallizes through two different processes. It is suggested that although the crystallization behaviors were apparently different, the crystallization mechanisms of these oils are essentially the same.
[es]Se estudiaron los comportamientos durante la cristalización de aceites de cártamo y oliva en función de los cambios en el volumen y la intensidad de la luz transmitida durante el almacenamiento isotérmico a baja temperatura. Los cambios fueron significativamente diferentes entre los dos aceites, aunque su composición en ácidos grasos era similar, con el ácido oleico en una proporción superior al 75% (p/p). Se esperaba que los componentes menores con altos puntos de fusión afectarían a los comportamientos de cristalización de estos aceites. Los procesos de cristalización de los aceites se analizaron utilizando un modelo cinético en el que el aceite cristaliza a través de dos procesos diferentes. Se sugiere que, aunque los comportamientos de cristalización fueron aparentemente diferentes, los mecanismos de cristalización de estos aceites serían esencialmente los mismos.
[en] This paper sets out to measure and quantify the impact of the oil shale development cycle of the 1980's. Information used for this analysis is the recently released U.S. Census Bureau population statistics compared to the population projections made in 1980 by the Colorado West Area Council of Governments. Actually anyone who was here and experienced the oil shale development cycle in the 1980's believes it was a severe boom and bust. It is just a matter of quantifying it. Andy Gulliford, the author of open-quotes Boomtown Bluesclose quotes describes in detail how many residents experienced their own personal boom/bust cycle in our region. Anyone interested in the cause and effects of the boom/bust cycle should read a copy of his book
[en] The ultrasonic wave velocity and attenuation of a number vegetable oil products were measured using an ultrasonic pulse echo overlap technique from room temperature up to 900C. Among the liquid samples studied were refined bleach deodorized (RED) palm oil, palm olein, coconut oil, corn oil and soya bean oil. The velocity of sound in vegetable oil products varies from about 1200 to 200 ms-1 and decrease linearly as the temperature increases. The ultrasonic properties of the oil are much dependent on their viscosity, density, relaxation effect and vibrational anharmonicity