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[en] The radiometric age data obtained by different dating methods have been interpreted in terms of possible orogenic activities prevailing in the Himalaya. In general, the age data confirm four main events, the Precambrian, the Late Precambrian-Cambrian Assyntian (Caledonian), the Late Palaeozoic-Hercynian and the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary Himalayan orogeny. The mineral dates are particularly significant in delineating different phases of the last i.e. the Himalayan orogeny which indicates main activity of the young Himalayan metamorphism around 70 to 50 Ma and followed by a momentous phase of major uplift during 25 to 10 Ma, which was responsible for the rise of the deeper part of the Himalaya into great folds and thrust slices and the formation of nappe structures. (author)
[en] The earliest Svecofennian magmatism in southern Finland has been dated at 1.90-1.88Ga. As an example of this, the Orijärvi (ca. 1.89Ga) and Enklinge (ca. 1.88Ga) volcanic centres comprise bimodal plutonic batholiths surrounded by volcanic rocks of comparable ages and chemical compositions. Here, we report geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope data from intrusive and extrusive samples, combined with zircon U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopes for granodiorites from both study areas. The samples range from gabbros to granites and indicate a subduction-related continental margin setting. The zircons from the Orijärvi granodiorite define an age of 1892±4Ma whereas the Enklinge granodiorite yields an age of 1882±6Ma. Several inherited ages of 2.25-1.95Ga as well as younger ages of 1.86-1.80Ga were found in the Enklinge granodiorite. The initial εNd values from the mafic rocks from both locations fall in the range +1.1 to +2.9 whereas the felsic rocks exhibit initial εNd values of -0.4 to +1.2. The magmatic zircons from the Orijärvi and Enklinge granodiorites show average initial εHf values of -1.1 (at 1892Ma) and zero (at 1882Ma), respectively, each with a spread of about 7 ε-units. The initial εHf values for the inherited zircons from Enklinge range from +3.5 to +7.6 with increasing age. The Sm-Nd data indicate that the mafic rocks were derived from a “mildly depleted” mantle source while the felsic rocks show larger crustal contribution. Also, the variation in εHf values indicates minor mixing between mildly depleted mantle derived magmas and crustal sources. U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for inherited zircons in the Enklinge granodiorite suggest the presence of juvenile Svecofennian “proto-crust” at depth.
[en] The Variscan orogen of NW Iberia contains abundant syn- and post-tectonic granitoids. The post-tectonic granitoids are metaluminous to slightly peraluminous, I-type granites, monzogranites ± granodiorites ± tonalites. The Porriño pluton studied here is a representative example. It consists of two units: i) a pink-red, peraluminous, biotite granite and ii) a gray, metaluminous to peraluminous, biotite (± amphibole ± titanite) monzogranite, including maficintermediate enclaves. SHRIMP U-Pb dating yielded 290-295Ma ages for all the units. The mineralogy and geochemistry show that the pink-red granite has features of I- and A-type granites, whereas the gray monzogranite and enclaves are I-types. Sr isotopes show scattered values for the pink-red granite (87Sr/86Sr295Ma ≈ 0.702-0.710) and uniform values for the gray monzogranite and enclaves (87Sr/86Sr295Ma≈ 0.705-0.706). Geochemical results indicate a peritectic entrainment of clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene ± Ca-plagioclase ± ilmenite ± garnet, and minor accessory phases (± zircon ± titanite ± apatite) into a melt similar to the leucocratic gray monzogranite. A mafic-intermediate source is proposed for the gray monzogranite and its enclaves. Restitic protoliths generated granitic melts with A-type features such as the pink-red granite. The I-type nature of many post-tectonic granitoids could be explained by the previous extraction of S-type syn-tectonic granites that left restites and less fertile rocks. Late orogenic new melting affected the previously unmelted and more mafic lithologies of the lower-middle crust, and gave rise to I-type granitoids. Repeated melting events affecting such lithologies and previous restites could have generated granitic melts with A-type features.
[en] The structure of Africa became established at the end of the Precambrian era (500-600 million years ago). It is the result of a series of relatively brief paroxysmal events, which constitute good chronological markers, and of long periods of relative stability. A complete succession of events - erosion, transport, sedimentation and folding - constitutes an orogeny or cycle; the final, paroxysmal phase is called an ''orogenesis''. As regards Africa, authors distinguish between four major orogeneses: Precambrian A (500-600 to 900-1200 million years ago), Precambrian B (900-1200 to 1800-2000 million years ago), Precambrian C (1800-2000 to 2500 million years ago), Precambrian D (before 2500 million years ago). Africa is conventionally considered to be made up of four consolidated and granitized cratons: the West African (or guineo-eburnean), Congolese, Kalahari and nilotic cratons. With these cratons are associated internal, ''intracratonic'' basins with relatively shallow detritic sedimentation and intercratonic zones with their own deep sedimentation; the latter, located at the periphery of the cratons, on the fold axes, are called ''mobile belts''. Gabon lies in the north-west part of the Congolese craton. The Franceville basin is one of the intracratonic basins of the Congolese craton. The age of its sediments has been estimated at 1740+-20 million years. The Franceville basin can thus be assigned to the Precambrian B orogenesis
[en] An attempt to distinguish the main periods of uranium ore formation that have taken place in the geological history of the globe is made. Based on available ore formation age determinations, six uranium epochs have been recognized: Middle Proterozoic, 2200-1700 m.y., Upper Proterozoic; 1150-920 m.y.; Early Paleozoic, 550-500 m.y.; Permian, 250-190 m.y.; Cretaceous, 107-88 m.y.; and Tertiary, 23-4.5 m.y. No uranium deposits are known to be formed during Archaean. The oldest uranium ore deposits were formed in Africa (2100 m.y.) which are primarily due to the earliest transition of the earth's crust evolution from sea to continental conditions of sedimentation in this part of the earth's crust. The relation of uranium epochs to orogeneses is discussed and also periods of major uranium-bearing rock formations. The essential part of uranium deposits was formed during the Proterozoic uranium epochs in contrast to ore deposits of other mobile metals such as Mg, Mo, Cu, Sb, Pb, Zn and Hg. (author)
[en] Full text: The Western Black Sea region comprises parts of:East European platform, Scythian paltform, North Dobrogea orogen, Moesian paltform, Balkan orogen, Eastern Srednogorie, Strandzha orogen, Karkinit basin, West Black Sea basin, Bourgas basin and Thrace basin. The West Black Sea basin consists of two western branches; northern one-Histria sub-basin (in Romania) and southern one-Kamchia sub-basin (in Bulgaria).The eastern Mosian platform is fringed to North by North Dobrogea rift (Seghedi,2001) and to South by Eastern Srednogorie-Balkan rift zone (ESBRZ). These two rift basins were inverted into orogenic belts. Eastwards to the Western Black Sea basin only a broad transitional zone with complex structure can be outlined. To West the Moesian platforms surrounded by south Carpathian-Balkan thrust-fold belt. Both rift basins restricted the Eastern Moesian platform to north and south, are superimposed on the Hercynian sutures.The North Dobrogea rift basin-on the suture between the south-western edge of East Europen platform and Moesian block, and the ESBRZ-on the suture between Moesian block and peri-Gondwana derived Thracian block. The South Moesian platform margin was repeatedly affected by Mesozoic rifting cycles in the Eastern Srednogorie-Balkan zone (ESBZ), interrupted and followed by compressional events,causing strong platform margin shortening and ultimately its overprinting by the alpine orogen.
[en] Uranium mineralization in Bichun area, Jaipur district, Rajasthan, India is hosted by albitites within the Banded Gneissic Complex (BGC). Detailed mineralogical and EPMA studies reveal the presence of davidite along with brannerite and uraninite. The U - Pb concordia upper intercept age of 933 ± 13 Ma and Pb - Pb isochron age of 930 ± 4 Ma, on pure davidite fractions indicate the timing of uranium mineralizing event to be ca. 930 Ma. The timing of uranium mineralization can be correlated with the Grenvillian orogeny (ca. 1000 Ma). The Sm - Nd model age (T_D_M) of davidite is varies from 1851 to 2200 Ma with ε_N_d_i_(_9_3_0 _M_a_) ranging from -10.7 to -15.5 which shows that the Palaeoproterozoic rocks with crustal component (either within BGC or basement granite) are the source for uranium. (author)
[en] This paper analyzes the rose diagrams of the directions of 439 faults of the Variscian province, 476 faults of the Caledonian province, and 603 presently active faults of Tien Shan. It is shown that more than half of the faults of the Caledonian province of Tien Shan are a result of Late Paleozoic orogenesis, which spanned its entire territory. Our data indicate that seismic events of Tien Shan have resulted in no formation of new disjunctive dislocation in many cases exhibiting displacements along Paleozoic faults. This information should be taken into account during selection of building areas.
[en] Main components of stages of mineral formation, sequence of deposition of ore stage minerals, uranium-bearing and oreless bitimens are considered at different manifestations of uranobitumen and uranobitumen-sulfide type A multistage sequence of mineral formation is found out: metasomatic alterations of rocks-sulfide deposition-formation of uranobitumen (or uranobitumen-sulfide) mineralization. The common feature of a sequence of the ore stage minerals formation is deposition of sulfides (sometimes along with pitchblende) slightly before bitumens with dispersed pitchblende fine particles. Essential amounts of kerite-like substances (uranium-bearing and oreless) may be deposited before essential amounts of asphaltite- and oil-like substances
[en] During its evolution, organic matter may undergo different types of alterations which modify its chemical composition and which can be superimposed on the transformations normally induced by thermal maturation. These alterations are linked to the modification of the oxido-reduction conditions and/or the action of host-rock extraneous solutions. Such effects are for instance observed in the case of several geologically well-known uraniferous deposits where some chemical disequilibrium between the apparent diagenetic state of the organic matter and the diagenesis undergone by the host-rocks can be pointed out. Examples presented herein concern U deposits associated with various types of organic matter. These chemical transformations are connected with three major phenomena: oxidation, biodegradation and aromatization. 97 refs.; 12 figs.; 2 tabs