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[en] Outdoor air pollution is increasingly considered as a serious threat for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The aim of this study is to investigate the association between outdoor pollutants and cardiovascular diseases among adults in Lebanon and to examine the possible moderator effect of cigarette smoking status on this association. A multicenter case-control study was conducted between October 2011 and October 2012. Cases were hospitalized patients diagnosed with CVD by a cardiologist while the control group subjects were free of any cardiac diseases. Information on socio demographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, self-rated global health, pollution exposure, and other risk factors was collected using a questionnaire. The results of the logistic regression revealed that living near busy highway (OR 5.04, 95% CI (4.44-12.85), p<0.001) and close to local diesel generator (OR 4.76, 95% CI (2.07-10.91), p<0.001) was significantly associated with CVD. The association between the CVD and exposure to outside pollutants differed by cigarette smoking status. A clear difference was noted between nonsmokers and current smokers OR 4.6, 95% CI (1.10-19.25) and OR 10.11, 95% CI (7.33-20.23), respectively. Forthcoming studies are needed to clarify the potential link between outdoor air pollution and cardiovascular diseases in Lebanon. Public health interventions must be implemented to reduce air pollution and to improve air quality
[en] This study investigated factors affecting yearly and monthly numbers of visits to Taipei Zoo. Both linear and nonlinear regression models were used to estimate yearly visits. The results of both models showed that the “opening effect” and “animal star effect” had a significantly positive effect on yearly visits, while a SARS outbreak had a negative effect. The number of years had a significant influence on yearly visits. Results showed that the nonlinear model had better explanatory power and fitted the variations of visits better. Results of monthly model showed that monthly visits were significantly influenced by time fluctuations, weather conditions, and the animal star effect. Chinese New Year, summer vacation, numbers of holidays, and animal star exhibitions increased the number of monthly visits, while the number of days with temperatures at or below 15 °C, the number of days with temperatures at or above 30 °C, and the number of rainy days had significantly negative effects. Furthermore, the model of monthly visits showed that the animal star effect could last for over two quarters. The results of this study clarify the factors affecting visits to an outdoor recreation site and confirm the importance of meteorological factors to recreation use.
[en] Highlights: • Increasing surrounding greenness associated with reduced odds of use of benzodiazepines. • Access to major green spaces was associated with self-reported history of depression. • Air pollution and noise explained a proportion of the associations observed. • No associations between blue spaces and mental health outcomes were observed. • The present study suggests a potential protective role of green spaces on mental health. Although exposure to natural outdoor environments has been consistently associated with improved perceived general health, available evidence on a protective association between this exposure and specific mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety is still limited.
[en] The radioactive noble gas radon (222Rn, alpha decay, t1/2 = 3.82 days) is always accompanied by its short-lived decay products (RnDP): 218Po (alpha decay, t1/2 = 3.10 min), 214Pb (beta/gamma decay, t1/2 = 26.8 min), 214Bi (beta/gamma decay, t1/2 = 19.9 min), and 214Po (alpha decay, t1/2 = 164 μs). In indoor and outdoor air, they appear as unattached RnDP in the form of clusters in the size range 0.5-3 nm and as attached RnDP between 200 and 800 nm. Because of plate-out of aerosols on the walls and floor of a room, as well as air movement and entry of fresh air, radioactive equilibrium between RnDP and Rn in indoor air is only partly achieved and is expressed as a fraction between 0 and 1, called the equilibrium factor, F. Birchall and James elaborated a dosimetric approach to calculate the dose conversion factor, DCFD, based on fun. In this paper, the results of our studies on fun in 29 rooms of kindergartens and 26 rooms of elementary and high schools, at the lowest point and the railway station in the Postojna Cave, and in 4 rooms in wineries in Slovenia are reported, and DCFD values based on the Porstendorfer formulae are discussed and compared with the DCFE value recommended by ICRP-65
[en] Aiming at the actuality that the current radiac has no perfect training device for radiation reconnaissance, an idea of the simulative training device for the radiac was brought forward in the thesis. And then the training device was designed in the mass according to the idea. Tests indicate that the simulative training device can meet the requirements for simulative training. (authors)
[en] The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, 'National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,' (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.
[en] We experimentally demonstrate quantum communication in 10 dB loss outdoor atmospheric channel with 5 kbit/s bitrate using subcarrier wave coding method. Free-space link was organized by telescoping system with symmetric fiber-optic collimators. (paper)
[en] Human beings are continuously exposed to the radiations coming from outside and inside their bodies. Outside and inside radiations are coming from ground, building materials, food, air, the universe and even elements within human own bodies. According to UNSCEAR 2000 report, background radiations deliver an average effective dose of 2.4 mSv per person worldwide. Sustained exposure from high background radiation levels may pose substantial health threats to general public. In the current study we are presenting the results of ambient outdoor gamma dose rates measured for Jhelum valley of the state of Azad Kashmir. This study has been carried out by using Ludlum micrometer-19 which is an active and portable detector. Effects of different parameters of interest on the measured values of gamma dose rates have been investigated. For the region under investigation, minimum and maximum indoor gamma dose rates were found as 610± 4.05 μ Gy-y 1 and 1372±2.7 μ Gy-y 1, respectively, whilst minimum and maximum outdoor gamma dose rates were found as 495±4.49 μ Gy-y 1 and 1296±2.78 m Gy $ y 1 , respectively. Overall arithmetic mean (A.M) and geometric mean (G.M) values of gamma dose rates for indoor and outdoor measurements were found as 940±3.26 μ Gy-y 1, 892±3.35 μGy-y 1 and 928±3.28μ Gy-y 1, 880±3.37 μ Gy-y 1 respectively. Excess life time cancer risk (ELCR) for indoor exposure ranges from 1.057⊸103 to 2.377 10 3 with an average value of 1.629 ⊸103 . For outdoor exposure, ELCR varies from 0.352⊸103 to 0.792⊸103 with mean value of 0.543⊸103. Average values of indoor gamma doses were found to be greater than the world population-weighted average for indoor gamma dose rates (780μGy-y 1 or 89 n Gy h 1)
[en] Radon (222Rn) activity concentration in outdoor air was measured by exposing track etch detectors at 60 points. Values were found in the range of 3.7-41.0 Bq·m-3, with a geometric mean (GM) of 11.8 Bq·m-3 and geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.2. An outdoor radon map of Slovenia was drawn, showing the majority of elevated values to be in the south-west part of the country that is covered by carbonates. (authors)
[en] Among the different kinds of bio aerosols, fungi represent a heterogeneous group, which plays an important role in human pathology. These microorganisms can be the cause of a variety of infectious diseases as well as allergic and toxic effects. Therefore, it is necessary to assess their composition and concentrations indoors, outdoors and in domestic environments. The study of indoor-air quality is a relatively new activity in the world, and very recent in Mexico. The aim of this study was to establish the relation between indoors and outdoors fungal aerosols in domestic homes. Air samples were collected, using the 6-stage Andersen impactor, inside and outside thirty domestic homes of Merida city, in Yucatan, Mexico. (Author)