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[en] The Indus Basin of Pakistan with 800 hydropower project sites and a feasible hydropower potential of 60 GW, 89% of which is undeveloped, is a complex system poised for large-scale changes in the future. Motivated by the need to understand future impacts of hydropower alternatives, this study conducted a multi-dimensional, empirical analysis of the full hydropower portfolio. The results show that the full portfolio spans multiple scales of capacity from mega (>1000 MW) to micro (<0.1 MW) projects with a skewed spatial distribution within the provinces, as well as among rivers and canals. Of the total feasible potential, 76% lies in two (out of six) administrative regions and 68% lies in two major rivers (out of more than 125 total channels). Once projects currently under implementation are commissioned, there would be a five-fold increase from a current installed capacity of 6720 MW to 36759 MW. It is recommended that the implementation and design decisions should carefully include spatial distribution and environmental considerations upfront. Furthermore, uncertainties in actual energy generation, and broader hydrological risks due to expected climate change effects should be included in the current planning of these systems that are to provide service over several decades into the future. - Highlights: ► Pakistan has a hydropower potential of 60 GW distributed across 800 projects. ► Under-development projects will realize 36.7 GW of this potential by 2030. ► Project locations are skewed towards some sub-basins and provinces. ► Project sizes are very diverse and have quite limited private sector ownership. ► Gaps in data prevent proper risk assessment for Pakistan's hydropower development.
[en] The objective of the study is to re-investigate the multivariate electricity consumption function for Pakistan, particularly, economic growth, foreign direct investment and population growth over a 36-year time period, i.e., between 1975 and 2010. The study employed the bounds-testing procedure for cointegration which examines the short-run and long-run estimates. Dynamic short-run causality test is applied to determine the causality direction between electricity consumption and its determinants, by using Wald-F statistics. The results reveal that determinants of electricity consumption function are cointegrated and influx of foreign direct investment, income and population growth is positively related to electricity consumption in Pakistan. However, the intensity of these determinants is different on electricity consumption. If there is 1% increase in income, foreign direct investment and population growth; electricity consumption increases by 0.973%; 0.056% and 1.605%, respectively. This infers that income, foreign direct investment and population growth induce an increase in electricity consumption in Pakistan. Dynamic short-run causality test indicates that there has been unidirectional causality which is running from population growth to electricity consumption in Pakistan. - Highlights: ► To re-investigate the multivariate electricity consumption function for Pakistan. ► FDI, income and population growth are positively related to electricity consumption. ► The intensity of determinants is different on electricity consumption. ► Population growth exerts the major contributor to increase electricity consumption. ► Unidirectional causality running from population growth to electricity.
[en] The paper presents the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority’s (PNRA) experience of using the IAEA methodology for safety culture self-assessment (SCSA) in regulatory bodies. It highlights the strategy utilized for disseminating the outcomes of SCSA in the organization at different levels along with associated safety culture improvement activities. Moreover, improvements in regulatory processes, where safety culture is expected to be included, are also addressed in this paper. (author)
[en] Cypsela of 26 species distributed in 9 genera of the tribe Senecioneae were examined from Pakistan. Micromorphological characters of cypsela in this group are not only found useful for assessing relationship but they are also useful for the delimitation of taxa both at the generic and specific levels, except that of the genera Senecio and Doronicum which could not be clearly separated as they do not have exclusive cypsela features. (author)
[en] Complete text of publication follows. After the installation of geomagnetic observatory 'Abdus Salaam' in Sonmiani (South-west of Pakistan), Pakistan has established another geomagnetic observatory at Islamabad (33.75degN, 72.87degE), located in the North-east mountainous region of the country. Since Pakistan is spread along 23-40degN, 60-80degE, the newly established observatory will provide enhanced coverage of geomagnetic activity in the country. During 2008, repeat station work at three selected sites (Multan, Gilgit and Skardu) was also carried out to compare with the survey work previously done during 2005. All this activity was the result of collaboration between SUPARCO and IRM started in 2006 and which culminated in July 2008 by this joint installation and measurement campaign. Experiences during establishment of the observatory and repeat station comparisons/results are described in this study.
[en] In this article, we present an overview of the research activity undertaken in Pakistan in the field of nanoscience and technology for the period 2001–2010. Starting with almost insignificant publications in this field in 2001, the number has risen steadily to 430 in 2010. A break up of organizations actively involved in research in this field suggests that most of these publications have emanated from universities. The contribution of R and D organizations that far outnumber the universities is about 10 percent of the total. Reasons for the increasing trend in publications, especially in the universities are discussed.
[en] The Director General has received a communication dated 30 January 2001 from the Permanent Mission of Pakistan forwarding a press release concerning the promulgation of the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority Ordinance 2001. As requested in that communication, the press release is attached hereto for the information of Member States
[en] Objective: Thyroidectomy is a very common surgical procedure worldwide and is performed by surgeons with varied training. The outcome and complication rates are largely dependent on surgeon's skill and experience, the extent of surgery, indication of surgery and number of thyroid surgeries performed at that particular centre. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of postoperative complications after thyroid surgery in Hyderabad, Pakistan. Study Design: It was a descriptive study and was carried out at 2 private hospitals including a teaching University Hospital over a period of 3 years from April 2005 to March 2008. Patients and Methods: All patients with goitre, who underwent any sort of thyroid surgery, were included in this study. Patients' bio-data including name, age sex, clinical status of thyroid, thyroid function tests, ultrasound, fine needle aspiration cytology and operative procedure, findings, post operative complications and histopathology reports were recorded. Data were analysed using SPSS 16.0. Results: The overall postoperative complication rate was 10.7%. Postoperative hypocalcaemia was the most frequent complication observed in 3.5% of all patients followed by recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury noted in 2.8% patients. The less common complications were bleeding, seroma formation and wound infection. Majority of these complications were associated with total thyroidectomy, male gender, and in patients with age more than 30 years. Conclusion: The commonest post thyroidectomy complication was hypocalcaemia. Male gender, old age, and extensive thyroid surgery were associated with increased complication rate. (author)
[en] The study was conducted to investigate the effect of bio fertilizer on wheat variety Zardana production at four locations of Balochistan. Biofertilizer (Azospirillum AI-Q + N 45 kg ha/sup -1/, P20S 30 kg ha/sup -1/) was used to substitute for half of the Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer application rates as compared to a high fertilizer treatment (N 90 kgha/sup -1/ P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ 60 kg ha/sup -l/). The high mineral fertilizer and bio fertilizer + half mineral fertilizer treatments were compared with a control treatment (no fertilizer). Significant grain yield were measured at all sites, although, at all sites both fertilizer treatments apparently out yielded the control and the bio fertilizer + half mineral fertilizer treatment out yielded the high fertilizer treatment by 220-1180 kgha/sup -1/. Fresh yields differed significantly at all sites. At Mastung field, both fertilizer treatments out yielded the control by 3000 kgha-1 and at Quetta (Aghbarg field-2) the bio fertilizer + half mineral fertilizer treatment out. yielded the others by over 3000 kghal. The results proved that the application of bio fertilizer in combination with N 45 kgha/sup -1/ and P/sub 2/O/sub 5 / 30 kgha/sup -1/ increased fresh yield from 11 % to 59% and suggested increases in grain yield of 20-46% as compared with control treatment. (author)