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[en] Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare primary neoplasms of the pancreas and arise sporadically or in the context of genetically determined syndromes. Depending on hormone production and sensing, PNETs clinically manifest due to a hormone-related syndrome (functional PNET) or by symptoms related to tumor bulk effects (non-functional PNET). So far, radical surgical excision is the only therapy to cure the disease. Development of tailored non-surgical approaches has been impeded by the lack of experimental laboratory models and there is, therefore, a limited understanding of the complex cellular and molecular biology of this heterogeneous group of neoplasm. This review aims to summarize current knowledge of tumorigenesis of familial and sporadic PNETs on a cellular and molecular level. Open questions in the field of PNET research are discussed with specific emphasis on the relevance of disease management
[en] Highlights: • Autophagy activation is an important pathogenesis of LPS-induced ALI in mouse. • H2S can inhibit the activation of autophagy in ALI induced by LPS. • H2S and 3-MA ameliorated LPS-induced ALI both in vivo and in vitro. • H2S inhibit the activation of autophagy through PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Recent studies reported that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an effective agent for the prevention and treatment of acute lung injury (ALI). But the underlying mechanisms have not been understood clearly. In this study, we explored the possible mechanism from the perspective of autophagy regulation.
[en] Within the last couple of years, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that drive the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has significantly improved. Large-scale gene expression profiling studies have led to the discovery of several molecularly defined subtypes that are characterized by specific oncogene addictions and significant differences in their outcome. Next generation sequencing efforts combined with RNA interference screens frequently identify crucial oncogenes that lead to constitutive activation of various signaling pathways that drive lymphomagenesis. This review summarizes our current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the activated B-cell-like (ABC) DLBCL subtype that is characterized by poor prognosis. A special emphasis is put on findings that might impact therapeutic strategies of affected patients
[en] Dysregulated alternative splicing (AS) that contributes to diabetes pathogenesis has been identified, but little is known about the RNA binding proteins (RBPs) involved. We have previously found that the RBP CELF1 is upregulated in the diabetic heart; however, it is unclear if CELF1 contributes to diabetes-induced AS changes. Utilizing genome wide approaches, we identified extensive changes in AS patterns in Type 1 diabetic (T1D) mouse hearts. We discovered that many aberrantly spliced genes in T1D hearts have CELF1 binding sites. CELF1-regulated AS affects key genes within signaling pathways relevant to diabetes pathogenesis. Disruption of CELF1 binding sites impairs AS regulation by CELF1. In sum, our results indicate that CELF1 target RNAs are aberrantly spliced in the T1D heart leading to abnormal gene expression. These discoveries pave the way for targeting RBPs and their RNA networks as novel therapies for cardiac complications of diabetes.
[en] The cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) is implicated in the intake of long-chain fatty acids and fat storage in various cell types including the pancreatic beta cell, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of metabolic stress and diabetes. Recent evidence indicates that CD36 undergoes post-translational modifications such as acetylation-deacetylation. However, putative roles of such modifications in its functional activation and onset of beta cell dysregulation under the duress of glucolipotoxicity (GLT) remain largely unknown. Using pharmacological approaches, we validated, herein, the hypothesis that acetylation-deacetylation signaling steps are involved in CD36-mediated lipid accumulation and downstream apoptotic signaling in pancreatic beta (INS-1832/13) cells under GLT. Exposure of these cells to GLT resulted in significant lipid accumulation without affecting the CD36 expression. Sulfo-n-succinimidyl oleate (SSO), an irreversible inhibitor of CD36, significantly attenuated lipid accumulation under GLT conditions, thus implicating CD36 in this metabolic step. Furthermore, trichostatin A (TSA) or valproic acid (VPA), known inhibitors of lysine deacetylases, markedly suppressed GLT-associated lipid accumulation with no discernible effects on CD36 expression. Lastly, SSO or TSA prevented caspase 3 activation in INS-1832/13 cells exposed to GLT conditions. Based on these findings, we conclude that an acetylation-deacetylation signaling step might regulate CD36 functional activity and subsequent lipid accumulation and caspase 3 activation in pancreatic beta cells exposed to GLT conditions. Identification of specific lysine deacetylases that control CD36 function should provide novel clues for the prevention of beta-cell dysfunction under GLT.
[en] TO THE EDITOR: The recent article by Demir et al. in your esteemed journal provided for highly stimulating and interesting reading. Interestingly, over the past few years artemin has been identified as a significant player in the enhancement of oncogenicity of various other tumors besides pancreatic cancers.
[en] Highlights: • TFB2M have been known to critical in mitochondrial DNA gene expression. • We identified a variation of TFB2M gene sequence in Korean autism patients. • The variation caused increased mitochondrial DNA gene expression. • Increased mitochondrial biogenesis resulted in ROS production and damaged cells. • Structural changes of variant TFB2M seems to delay unloading of DNA from TFB2M. Mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent enhanced oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Mitochondrial transcription factor B2 (TFB2M) is an essential protein in mitochondrial gene expression. No reports have described TFB2M mutations and variations involved in any human diseases. We identified a rare homozygous c.790C>T (His264Tyr) variation in TFB2M gene in two Korean siblings with ASD by whole-exome sequencing. The roles of the TFB2M variation in the pathogenesis of ASD were investigated. Patient fibroblasts revealed increased transcription of mitochondrial genes and mitochondrial function in terms of ATP, membrane potential, oxygen consumption, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Overexpression of the TFB2M variant in primary-cultured fibroblasts demonstrated significantly increased transcription of mitochondrial genes and mitochondrial function compared with overexpression of wild-type TFB2M. Molecular dynamics simulation of the TFB2M variant protein suggested an increase in the rigidity of the hinge region, which may cause alterations in loading and/or unloading of TFB2M on target DNA. Our results suggest that augmentation of mitochondrial gene expression and subsequent enhancement of mitochondrial function may be associated with the pathogenesis of ASD in Korean patients.
[en] The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family is associated with autoimmune diseases, but its expression level in the immune cells of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the expression of TIM-3 mRNA is associated with pathogenesis of SLE. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR) was used to determine TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 132 patients with SLE and 62 healthy controls. The PBMC surface protein expression of TIMs in PBMCs from 20 SLE patients and 15 healthy controls was assayed by flow cytometry. Only TIM-3 mRNA expression decreased significantly in SLE patients compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). No significant differences in TIM family protein expression were observed in leukocytes from SLE patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) had a significantly lower expression of TIM-3 mRNA than those without LN (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the expression of TIM-3 mRNA within different classes of LN (P>0.05). Correlation of TIM-3 mRNA expression with serum IgA was highly significant (r=0.425, P=0.004), but was weakly correlated with total serum protein (r_s=0.283, P=0.049) and serum albumin (r_s=0.297, P=0.047). TIM-3 mRNA expression was weakly correlated with the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI; r_s=-0.272, P=0.032). Our results suggest that below-normal expression of TIM-3 mRNA in PBMC may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE
[en] Duplication of vertebral arteries is a very rare but clinically important condition. A duplicated vertebral artery origin can influence hemodynamics, pathogenesis of vascular lesions and treatment options. In cases of vertebral artery duplication, the vertebral arteries generally enter the transverse foramen higher up than normal. Awareness of these vertebral artery variants before procedures, such as neurointervention or surgery, may be beneficial. Here, we describe a case of a 51-year-old female patient with left vertebral artery duplication which was detected incidentally.
[en] Objective. To review our experience of chronic recurrent multifocal osteomyelitis (CRMO) and to assess the value of MRI in this rare disease, which mainly affects children and adolescents. Design and patients. Seventeen patients from our departments were reviewed. All underwent conventional radiography and MRI, and most had bone scintigraphy. All had undergone bone biopsy, with microbiological and histopathological examinations, to exclude infectious disease, tumours and tumour-like lesions. Results and conclusion. CRMO affects predominantly the tubular bones of the limbs, followed by the clavicle and the spine. Other locations are rare. Diagnosis is important in avoiding unnecessary diagnostic procedures and to initiate appropriate therapy, and is usually based on a characteristic course and the appearances on radiography. However, CRMO lesions of tubular bones and the spine exhibit quite characteristic MRI features which support the diagnosis, while the appearance of the early clavicular lesion is non-specific. At all sites of CRMO in the skeleton, MRI is valuable in assessing the extent and activity of the lesion. It may exclude pyogenic involvement of the bone and soft tissues and guide effective biopsy. (orig.). With 10 figs., 1 tab