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[en] Conventional fragments of fluorescent proteins used in bimolecular fluorescence complementation technique (BiFC), form light-emitting species only when they are kept in close proximity by interacting proteins of interest. By contrast, certain fluorescent protein fragments complement spontaneously, namely those corresponding to the 1st to 10th beta-strands (GFP1-10) and the 11th beta-strand of superfolder GFP (GFP11). They were designed as folding reporters for high throughput expression and structure biology. Besides, for light microscopy, self-associating fluorescent protein fragments constitute a valuable and sometimes unique tool. The GFP11 tag is very advantageous when a full-length fluorescent protein cannot be fused to a protein of interest, namely for live imaging of certain pathogens. Self-associating GFP fragments enable live labelling of specific synapses, visualization of proteins topology and their exposure to particular subcellular compartments. Present review aims to attract attention of scientific community to these tools and to inspire their further development and applications. (topical review)
[en] Using a dynamic model we study the adaptive immune response to a sequence of two infections. We incorporate lymphocyte diversity by modeling populations as continuous distributions in a multi-dimensional space. As expected, memory cells generated by the primary infection invoke a rapid response when the secondary infection is identical (homologous). When the secondary infection is different (heterologous), the memory cells have a positive effect or no effect at all depending on the similarity of the infections. This model displays ‘original antigenic sin’ where the average effector affinity for the heterologous infection is lower than it would be for a naive response, but in cases with original antigenic sin we see a reduction in pathogen density. We model pathology resulting from the immune system itself (immunopathology) but find that in cases of original antigenic sin, immunopathology is still reduced. Average effector affinity is not an accurate measure of the quality of an immune response. The effectivity, which is the total pathogen killing rate, provides a direct measure of quality. This quantity takes both affinity and magnitude into account. (paper)
[en] Strobilurins are one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides. To discover new strobilurin derivatives with high activity against resistant pathogens, a series of novel β-methoxy acrylate analogues were designed and synthesized by integrating substituted pyrimidine with a strobilurin pharmacophore. The compounds were confirmed and characterized by infrared, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, elemental analysis and mass spectroscopy. The bioassays indicated that most of the compounds (1a-1h) exhibited potent antifungal activities against Colletotrichum orbicular, Botrytis cinerea Pers and Protoporphyria caps ici Leon ian at the concentration of 50 μg/mL. Exhilaratingly, compound 1d (R=3-trifluoromethylphenyl) showed better antifungal activity against all the tested fungi than the commercial stilbenetriol fungicide azoxystrobin
[en] IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.
[en] Enterobacter species have increasingly been identified as pathogens over the past several decades. These bacterial species have become more important because most are resistant to cephalothin and cefoxitin, and can produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase. Enterobacter asburiae (E. asburiae) is a gram-negative rod of the family Enterobacteriaceae, named in 1986. Since then, there has been only one clinical report of E. asburiae pneumonia. We report a case of E. asburiae pneumonia with cavitation and compare it with the previous case.
[en] We present a numerical model for the evolution of pathogens organised in discrete antigenic clusters, where individuals in the same clusters have the same fitness. The fitness of each cluster is a decreasing function of the total number of cluster members appeared in the population. Cluster transition is modelled with inclusion and exclusion of dynamical epistatic effects. In both cases we observe a continuous transition, driven by the mutation rate, from a dynamics with single clusters alternating in time to the coexistence of many clusters in the population. The transition between the two regimes is investigated in terms of the key parameters of the model. We find that the location and the scaling of this transition can be explained in terms of the time of first appearance of a new cluster in the population. The presence of dynamical epistatic effects results in a shift of the value of the mutation rate where the transition occurs. (paper: disordered systems, classical and quantum)
[en] Data on the main approaches to preparation of mono- and oligodentate glycoconjugates based on porphyrin scaffolds are surveyed. The prospects for using these compounds as sensitizers for photodynamic therapy of cancer and for suppression of bacterial and viral pathogens are considered. Data on the synthesis of oligodentate blocking agents for carbohydrate-binding proteins (lectins) based on porphyrin scaffolds are discussed. The bibliography includes 161 references
[en] Leaf rust is a foliar disease caused by the fungus Puccinia triticina that may severely reduce durum wheat yield. Resistance to this pathogen is common in modern durum germplasm but is frequently based on Lr72 and Lr14a. After accounts of races with virulence to Lr14a gene in France in 2000, the present study reports the detection in 2013 for the first time of a new race with virulence to Lr14a and Lr72. The aim of this work was to characterize the virulence pattern of four Spanish isolates with virulence to Lr14a, and to discuss the consequences of this presence. Rusted leaves from cultivars ‘Don Jaime’ (Lr14a) and ‘Gallareta’ (Lr72) were collected in 2013 in the field at two Spanish sites, one in the south (near Cadiz) and another in the north (near Girona). Spores from single pustule for each cultivar and site were multiplied on susceptible cultivar ‘Don Rafael’. Then, the four isolates were inoculated on a set of 19 isogenic lines Thatcher to characterize their virulence spectrum. All isolates presented the same virulence pattern. They were virulent on both Lr14a and Lr72 and the race was named DBB/BS. This race was very similar to those reported in 2009-11, but with added virulence to Lr14a. The resistance based on Lr14a has therefore been overcome in Spain, by a new race that has likely emerged via stepwise mutation from the local predominating races. This information is important to guide breeders in their breeding programmes and gene deployment strategies. (Author)