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[en] Paediatric interventional uroradiology lies at the intersection of the disciplines of paediatric interventional radiology and paediatric endourology. Interdisciplinary collaboration has led to the development of new techniques and refinement of procedures adopted from adult practice. This article reviews the major procedures used in paediatric interventional uroradiology, with emphasis on nephrostomy, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, balloon-burst pyeloplasty, and antegrade ureteric stenting.
[en] Like most other developing countries, India has a large proportion of children among its population. However, the facilities for adequate treatment of this large population is inadequate. The development of pediatric radiology as a subspecialty is still at an infant stage in India. The goal of our study was to assess the awareness about the current status of pediatric radiology in India. A questionnaire was handed over to all attendees of a pediatric radiology conference to assess their opinion regarding the adequacy of pediatric training and practice in India. The questionnaire consisted of 10 multiple-choice and two descriptive questions. Descriptive statistical methods were used for analyzing the results. Eighty-one out of 400 delegates responded to the questionnaire. Among these 81 respondents, 50 (61.7%) felt that exposure to pediatric cases during postgraduate course was inadequate. Sixty-three out of 81 (77.7%) respondents thought that specialized training is required for practicing pediatric radiology, and 79 respondents (97%) felt that the number of such training programmes should increase. Forty-five out of 81 respondents (55.5%) were interested in pursuing pediatric radiology as a career. According to the opinion of the respondents of our survey, pediatric radiology remains an underdeveloped speciality in India. Considering the proportion of the population in the pediatric age and the poor health indicators in this age group, elaborate measures, as suggested, need to be implemented to improve pediatric radiology training and the care of sick children in India.
[en] A transfemoral venous approach is the current standard for accessing malpositioned and fractured central venous catheters (CVCs). The purpose of this study was (1) to describe a transbrachial approach for correction and (2) to assess the success and failure of this method in a pediatric population. A 12-year retrospective review of all patients referred for correction of malpositioned, retained, and fractured CVCs was conducted. Based on the performing interventionalist's preference, transbrachial or transfemoral venous sheaths where placed under ultrasonographic guidance. Diagnostic angiographic catheters and snares were used to manipulate the catheters. Patients who underwent the transfemoral approach received postprocedural monitoring for 4 hours, whereas patients who underwent the transbrachial approach were allowed unrestricted activity immediately after hemostasis was obtained. Technical success of malpositioned lines was defined (1) by final position in the superior vena cava or at the cavoatrial junction on postprocedural imaging or (2) by successful removal of retained catheter fragments, if present. Transbrachial approach was used for access in 11 patients. Problematic lines included malpositioned (n = 10) and retained (n = 1) lines. The ipsilateral arm was used for transbrachial entry in 7 patients. Initial use of angiographic catheters was attempted in 7 cases, of which 4 were successful. All 3 unsuccessful cases had tips positioned in the contralateral brachiocephalic vein, and these were successfully repositioned using snares. A combination of snares and angiographic catheters was used in 2 cases. Snares were used for all other cases. Technical success by way of the transbrachial approach was observed in all cases. Periprocedural follow-up demonstrated no immediate complications. We conclude that the transbrachial approach is a suitable alternative to the transfemoral approach for catheter tip position correction. Tip malposition in the contralateral brachiocephalic vein suggests higher rate of conversion to use of snare devices.
[en] Presently, the importance of pediatric radiology is emerging in many aspects. In pediatric radiologic practice, great care must be taken to ensure that the correct examinations are performed, since most of the patients do not communicate in many cases. The author's intended to study that the general considerations concerning pediatric radiology except special procedures. There are radiologic equipment, pleasant and safe surroundings, patient care and immobilization devices, protection, and analysis about the pediatric patients distribution, magnification technic for children in this study. The conclusion is summarized that : 1) Establishment of a private room for the infant or children is essential. 2) Remarkable reduction of gonadal dose can be achieved by several methods. 3) Continual research for the good positioning. 4) Application of the shielding devices and positioning aids
[en] Highlights: • Clinical outcomes are affected by the placement of various tubes and catheters. • Basic knowledge of the ideal location of the tips is necessary. • Early detection of malpositioned devices is critical for prompt management. - Abstract: Chest radiographs are very helpful tool not only in the evaluation of respiratory and/or cardiac pathologies, but also to help clinicians in the assessment of various tubes and catheters inserted in pediatric patients. This review article focuses on the indications, contraindications, ideal locations of the tips of these tubes and catheters, as well as the consequences of malpositioning. Clinical outcomes of pediatric patients can be affected by the placement of these medical devices. The radiologist therefore has a critical role in detecting and relaying such malpositioned devices for prompt revisions or removal.