Results 1 - 10 of 12346
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[en] In endothelial gap formation, local tractions exerted by the cell upon its basal adhesions are thought to exceed balancing tensile stresses exerted across the cell-cell junction, thus causing the junction to rupture. To test this idea, we mapped evolving tractions, intercellular stresses, and corresponding growth of paracellular gaps in response to agonist challenge. Contrary to expectation, we found little to no relationship between local tensile stresses and gap formation. Instead, we discovered that intercellular stresses were aligned into striking multi-cellular domains punctuated by defects in stress alignment. Surprisingly, gaps emerged preferentially not at stress hotspots, as predicted, but rather at stress defects. This unexpected behavior is captured by a minimal model of the cell layer as a jammed assembly of cohesive particles undergoing plastic rearrangements under tension. Together, experiments and model suggest a new physical picture in which gap formation, and its consequent effect on endothelial permeability, is determined not by a local stress imbalance at a cell-cell junction but rather by emergence of non-local, cooperative stress reorganization across the cellular collective.
[en] On the purpose of analysing the moisture management behaviour of Cupro blend knitted fabrics made of Ne 40/1 and Ne 56/1 cotton/Cupro blend yarns, which have single jersey, 1x1 rib and interlock knitting types were systematically produced. Multi-dimensional liquid transport properties of the produced fabric were measured on the Moisture Management Tester (MMT). The air permeability and some structural properties of the fabrics were also measured, and the results were evaluated taking into account moisture management properties. According to results, it is observed that moisture management capacity and permeability of Cupro blends produced from finer yarns were higher than those of fabrics from coarse count yarns. Generally, Cupro blend knitted fabrics showed good moisture management properties. (paper)
[en] This study presents an investigation of the effect of different structural parameters of cotton woven fabrics on their air permeability. For this purpose, 24 fabric samples having different structural properties were obtained by using three different weave types (plain, 1/3 twill and 1/7 sateen), two different weft yarn counts (Ne 20/2 and Ne 70/2) and four different yarn twist levels (120, 360, 600, and 840 turns/m). Cotton Ne 50/1; 150 turns/m warp yarns and 40 threads/cm warp density were used in all fabric samples. The relationship between the fabrics structural parameters like weft yarn count, weave type, yarn twist number and air permeability behavior are investigated. It has been shown that the increase of yarn counts and yarn twist led to an increase in air permeability values of cotton woven fabrics. Also, cotton woven fabrics with 1/7 sateen weave have the maximum air permeability value; these fabrics are followed by the fabrics having weave types of plain and 1/3 twill in spite of high weft density. (paper)
[en] Fabrication process of microporous filter supports of high permeability and more particularly tubular filter supports used to make porous barriers needed in isotope separation
[fr]Procede de fabrication de supports de filtres microporeux a permeabilite elevee et, en particulier, aux supports de filtres de forme tubulaire dont on se sert pour fabriquer des barrieres poreuses utilisees dans la separation de certains isotopes
[en] This study is carried out to determine the geotechnical properties and compressibility characteristics of marine clay collected at Sabak Bernam. The compressibility characteristics of this soil are determined from 1-D consolidation test and verified by existing correlations by other researchers. No literature has been found on the compressibility characteristics of Sabak Bernam Marine Clay. It is important to carry out this study since this type of marine clay covers large coastal area of west coast Malaysia. This type of marine clay was found on the main road connecting Klang to Perak and the road keeps experiencing undulation and uneven settlement which jeopardise the safety of the road users. The soil is indicated in the Generalised Soil Map of Peninsular Malaysia as a CLAY with alluvial soil on recent marine and riverine alluvium. Based on the British Standard Soil Classification and Plasticity Chart, the soil is classified as a CLAY with very high plasticity (CV). Results from laboratory test on physical properties and compressibility parameters show that Sabak Bernam Marine Clay (SBMC) is highly compressible, has low permeability and poor drainage characteristics. The compressibility parameters obtained for SBMC is in a good agreement with other researchers in the same field. (paper)
[en] A series of in-situ permeation tests are being conducted to determine permeation coefficients and breakthrough and saturation times for certain elastomeric O-rings with various gases that might be used as leak test tracers. The work is directed towards developing more effective and efficient nuclear material shipping packaging leak test procedures. The tests are in progress presently, and a formal report will be published in 1984
[en] In this work, we model the biofilm growth at the microscale using a rectangular pore network model in 2D and a cubic network in 3D. For the 2D network, we study the effects of bioclogging on porosity and permeability when we change parameters like the number of nodes in the network, the network size, and the concentration of nutrients at the inlet. We use a 3D cubic network to study the influence of the number of nodes in the z direction on the biofilm growth and on upscalability. We show that the biofilm can grow uniformly or heterogeneously through the network. Using these results, we determine the conditions for upscalability of bioclogging for rectangular and cubic networks. If there is uniform biofilm growth, there is a unique relation between permeability and porosity, K ∼ ϕ2, this relation does not depend on the volume of the network, therefore the system is upscalable. However, if there is preferential biofilm growth, the porosity-permeability relation is not uniquely defined, hence upscalability is not possible. The Damköhler number is used to determine when upscalability is possible. If the Damköhler number is less than 101, the biofilm grows uniformly and therefore the system is upscalable. However, if the Damköhler number is greater than 103, the biofilm growth exhibits a deviation from uniform biofilm growth and heterogeneous growth is observed, therefore upscalability is not possible. There is a transition from uniform growth to preferential growth if the Damköhler number is between 101 and 103.
[en] The development of road pavement to fulfilled the need of modern life is not only focused on heavy duty road, but also a light duty road for the convenience of road users according to its function. For example the use of pavement on the jogging track, rail crossing, playground and so on. Due to the need of an alternative and the innovation of a comfortable pavement layer, but sufficiently strong in holding the load on the layer. The alternative innovation that can be used for the respective requirement is the utilization of waste old tires as substitute material in pavement construction. In this case the use of crumb rubber made from old tire rubber as an 100% fine aggregate substitute on the asphalt mixtures is investigated. To improve the strength and durability of the mixtures, the addition of polymer modified bitumen was incorporated. The two types of asphalt mixture selected in this study by using a continuous gradation of asphalt concrete and a gap gradation of hot roll asphalt. Testing to be implemented in this research is volumetric characteristics, Marshall characteristics, resistance to abrasion and impact and permeability. Replacement of fine aggregate with crumb rubber on asphalt concrete mixture with 60/70 penetration grade bitumen and polymer modified asphalt SBS E-55 in this research are expected to be an alternative in improving the quality of pavement and overcoming the environmental problems by reuse the waste materials. (paper)
[en] Exposure to environmental pollutants results in out-of-balance of vascular homeostasis. Endothelial dysfunction leads to a disruption of the endothelial permeability characteristics, associated with cardiovascular diseases. We previously reported that endosulfan could cause endothelial dysfunction, but the role of endosulfan in permeability of endothelial cells has been unexplored. To elucidate molecular mechanism of endosulfan-induced changes in endothelial permeability, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to endosulfan, followed by endothelial permeability analysis. The results showed that permeability of HUVECs was enhanced at 48 h after exposure to endosulfan in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated the disruptions of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion in endosulfan-exposed cells. Endosulfan activated MMP3/LAMC1/FAK signaling pathway, and downregulated ROCK and PXN in transcellular pathway. Endosulfan affected adherens junctions via E-cadherin and β-catenin, and impaired gap junctions through downregulation of Cx43 in paracellular pathway. We predicted four closely related human cardiovascular diseases in Nextbio, including shock, coronary arteriosclerosis, disorder of cardiac function and hypertensive disorder in relation to endosulfan exposure. Some genes such as ROCK2 and PXN were predicted to be key genes in these diseases. These findings suggest that endosulfan increased endothelial permeability by paracellular and transcellular pathways, implicating the potential correlation between endosulfan and cardiovascular diseases. - Highlights: • Endosulfan enhances endothelial permeability in HUVECs. • Endosulfan disrupts actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion. • Endosulfan affects adherens junctions and impaired gap junctions. • Cardiovascular diseases are predicted to correlate with endosulfan exposure.