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[en] Highlights: • SVV infection reduces expression of IRF3 and IRF7 protein. • SVV 3Cpro reduces IRF3 and IRF7 protein expression and phosphorylation. • The degradation of IRF3 and IRF7 is dependent on the 3Cpro protease activity. • The degradation of IRF3 and IRF7 blocks the transcription of IFN-β. Seneca Valley Virus (SVV) is a newly emerged virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae. Basic knowledge of the immunological response to SVV is limited. To date, one study has demonstrated that SVV 3Cpro mediates the cleavage of host MAVS, TRIF, and TANK at specific sites and consequently escapes the host's antiviral innate immunity. In this study, we show that SVV 3Cpro reduces IRF3 and IRF7 protein expression level and phosphorylation. SVV infection also reduces expression of IRF3 and IRF7 protein. The degradation of IRF3 and IRF7 is dependent on the 3Cpro protease activity. We also identify interactions between 3Cpro and IRF3 and IRF7 in PK-15 cells. A detailed analysis revealed that the degradation of IRF3 and IRF7 blocks the transcription of IFN-β, IFN-α1, IFN-α4, and ISG54. Together, our results demonstrate a novel mechanism developed by SVV 3Cpro to allow the virus to escape the host's intrinsic innate immune system.
[en] This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (https://www.elsevier.com/about/our-business/policies/article-withdrawal). This article has been retracted at the request of the author and the author's University, Shanghai Tongji University School of Medicine. The author conducted all the experiments and prepared the data shown in the article by herself without informing her supervisor, and subsequently, an investigative committee at the University of Tongji University School of Medicine found the article to lack original data for some figures and not to abide by local or international ethical standards for using human samples shown in Figure 1A. The author of this article would like to apologize to all affected parties
[en] More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have an invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in reproduction. In mammals, expression of GnRH-II is higher than GnRH-I in reproductive tissues. Here, we examined the effect of a GnRH-II agonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer therapy. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GnRH-I receptor protein in human endometrial cancer. The activity of MMP-2 in the conditioned medium was determined by gelatin zymography. Cell motility was assessed by invasion and migration assay. GnRH-I receptor si-RNA was applied to knockdown GnRH-I receptor. The GnRH-I receptor was expressed in the endometrial cancer cells. The GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility in a dose-dependent manner. The GnRH-II agonist induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the phosphorylation was abolished by ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and the JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Cell motility promoted by GnRH-II agonist was suppressed in cells that were pretreated with U0126 and SP600125. Moreover, U0126 and SP600125 abolished the GnRH-II agonist-induced activation of MMP-2. The inhibition of MMP-2 with MMP-2 inhibitor (OA-Hy) suppressed the increase in cell motility in response to the GnRH-II agonist. Enhanced cell motility mediated by GnRH-II agonist was also suppressed by the knockdown of the endogenous GnRH-I receptor using siRNA. Our study indicates that GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor via the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the subsequent, MAPK-dependent activation of MMP-2. Our findings represent a new concept regarding the mechanism of GnRH-II-induced cell motility in endometrial cancer cells and suggest the possibility of exploring GnRH-II as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human endometrial cancer
[en] Highlights: • Tyrosine kinase Fer preferentially binds to highly curved membranes via its FX domain. • An algorithmic search identified an intrinsically disordered region at the carboxy-terminal half of the FX domain. • The intrinsically disordered sequence forms an amphipathic helix upon binding to curved membranes. • Tyrosine kinase activity of Fer is enhanced by the presence of highly curved membranes. • -- Abstract: . Tyrosine kinases are important enzymes that mediate signal transduction at the plasma membrane. While the significance of membrane localization of tyrosine kinases has been well evaluated, the role of membrane curvature in their regulation is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that an intrinsically disordered region in the tyrosine kinase Fer acts as a membrane curvature sensor that preferentially binds to highly curved membranes in vitro. This region forms an amphipathic α-helix upon interaction with curved membranes, aligning hydrophobic residues on one side of the helical structure. Further, the tyrosine kinase activity of Fer is significantly enhanced by the membrane in a manner dependent on curvature. We propose a model for the regulation of Fer based on an intramolecular interaction and the curvature-dependent membrane binding mediated by its intrinsically disordered region.
[en] Highlights: • IKKβ is involved in membrane fusion. • IKKβ is required for initial formation and the regulation of the CBM complex. • IKKβ regulates CBM complex via phosphorylation of Bcl10 and IKKγ polyubiquitination. The current work investigates the notion that inducible clustering of signaling mediators of the IKK pathway is important for platelet activation. Thus, while the CARMA1, Bcl10, and MALT1 (CBM) complex is essential for triggering IKK/NF-κB activation upon platelet stimulation, the signals that elicit its formation and downstream effector activation remain elusive. We demonstrate herein that IKKβ is involved in membrane fusion, and serves as a critical protein kinase required for initial formation and the regulation of the CARMA1/MALT1/Bcl10/CBM complex in platelets. We also show that IKKβ regulates these processes via modulation of phosphorylation of Bcl10 and IKKγ polyubiquitination. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IKKβ regulates membrane fusion and the remodeling of the CBM complex formation.
[en] Highlights: • GDC-0084 is a novel small-molecule PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor. • GDC-0084 inhibits cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) cell survival/proliferation. • GDC-0084 induces apoptosis activation in cSCC cells. • GDC-0084 blocks PI3K-Akt-mTOR and DNA-PKcs signaling activation in cSCC cells. • Gastric gavage of GDC-0084 inhibits A431 xenograft tumor growth in SCID mice. GDC-0084 is a novel and potent small-molecule PI3K-mTOR dual inhibitor. The present study examined its potential activity in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) cells. Our results show that GDC-0084 treatment at nanomole concentrations potently inhibited survival and proliferation of established (A431, SCC-13 and SCL-1 lines) and primary human cSCC cells. GDC-0084 induced apoptosis activation and cell cycle arrest in the cSCC cells. It was more efficient than other known PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors in killing cSCC cells, but was non-cytotoxic to the normal human skin fibroblasts/keratinocytes. In A431 cells and primary cSCC cells, GDC-0084 blocked phosphorylation of key PI3K-Akt-mTOR components, including p85, Akt, S6K1 and S6. GDC-0084 also inhibited DNA-PKcs activation in cSCC cells. Significantly, restoring DNA-PKcs activation by a constitutively active-DNA-PKcs (S2056D) partially inhibited GDC-0084-induced cell death and apoptosis in A431 cells. In vivo, GDC-0084 daily gavage potently inhibited A431 xenograft tumor growth in mice. In GDC-0084-treated tumor tissues PI3K-Akt-mTOR and DNA-PKcs activation were significantly inhibited. In summary, GDC-0084 inhibits human cSCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo through blocking PI3K-Akt-mTOR and DNA-PKcs signalings.
[en] Highlights: • Transgelin-1 interacts with stress fibers and podosomes via its type-3 CH-domain. • EF-hand affects the transgelin-1–actin interaction cooperatively with CLIK23. • Phosphorylation in CLIK23 does not affect the transgelin-1–actin interaction. • Increased numbers of CLIK23 do not compensate for the deletion of the CH-domain. Transgelin-1 (SM22α) has been recognized as a smooth muscle marker and a tumor suppressor, but many details of the working mechanisms remain unclear. Transgelin-1 belongs to the calponin family of actin-binding proteins with an N-terminal calponin homology domain (CH-domain) and a C-terminal calponin-like module (CLIK23). Here, we demonstrate that transgelin-1 interacts with actin stress fibers and podosomes in smooth muscle cells via its type-3 CH-domain, while CLIK23 is dispensable for the binding to the actin structures. We further suggest that the EF-hand motif in transgelin-1 contributes to proper folding of the CH-domain and in turn to the interaction with the actin structures. These results are in contrast to the ones reported in in vitro studies that demonstrated CLIK23 was necessary for the transgelin-1–actin binding, while the CH-domain was not. Besides, within cells, transgelin-1 phosphorylation at Ser181 in CLIK23 did not affect its colocalization with the actin structures, while the same phosphorylation was reported in in vitro studies to negatively regulate actin binding. Thus, our results suggest the molecular basis of intracellular interaction between transgelin-1 and actin, distinct from that in vitro. The actin binding capability intrinsic to CLIK23 may not appear within cells probably because of the weaker competition for actin binding compared to other actin binding molecules.
[en] Highlights: • Pin1 contains two domains: WW domain and catalytic PPIase domain. • Interaction of both domains is required for Pin1 functions. • Molecular movement of Pin1 after it binds each substrate is still unclear. • FRET biosensor for detecting conformational changes of Pin1 was created. • This FRET biosensor is useful for Pin1-targeting drug screening. Pin1, a peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase), regulates the activity and stability of various phosphorylated proteins. Pin1 consists of a PPIase domain and WW domain, both of which are required for the function of Pin1. However, how the behavior of these domains changes upon binding to phosphorylated proteins has not been analyzed. We created a Fluorescent Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based biosensor “CPinY”, which is composed of Pin1 flanked by CFP and YFP, and analyzed the interaction between Pin1 and c-Myc. Our results indicated that the dual phosphorylation of c-Myc at Thr58 and Ser62 is essential for tight interaction with Pin1. Additionally, this interaction caused a significant conformational change in Pin1. Our CPinY biosensor also detected a novel type of inhibitor of Pin1 function. We believe that his biosensor will be a novel drug screening technology targeting Pin1.
[en] Highlights: • Phosphorylation of SPAK at S387 and OSR1 at S339 enhances binding to MO25. • WNK1 kinase phosphorylates SPAK at S387 and OSR1 S339 in vitro. • In cells, SPAK S387 and OSR1 S339 phosphorylation involves WNK kinases. • MO25 mutants that compromise MO25-dependent activation of SPAK and OSR1 kinases identified. SPAK and OSR1 are two protein kinases that play important roles in regulating the function of numerous ion co-transporters. They are activated by two distinct mechanisms that involve initial phosphorylation at their T-loops by WNK kinases and subsequent binding to a scaffolding protein termed MO25. To understand this latter SPAK and OSR1 regulation mechanism, we herein show that MO25 binding to these two kinases is enhanced by serine phosphorylation in their highly conserved WEWS motif, which is located in their C-terminal domains. Furthermore, we show that this C-terminal phosphorylation is carried out by WNK kinases in vitro and involves WNK kinases in cells. Mutagenesis studies revealed key MO25 residues that are important for MO25 binding and activation of SPAK and OSR1 kinases. Collectively, this study provides new insights into the MO25-mediated activation of SPAK and OSR1 kinases, which are emerging as important players in regulating ion homeostasis.
[en] The phosphorylation of the serine hydroxyl group in the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inactivates this essential enzyme in neurotransmission. Its related enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) also interacts with organophosphorus compounds (OP) scavenging anti-cholinesterase agents and protects synaptic AChE from inhibition. Oximes are reactivators of AChE phosphorylated by OP including insecticides and nerve agents. The effectiveness of oxime-assisted reactivation is primarily attributed to the nucleophilic displacement rate of organophosphate, but efficiency varies with the structure of the bound organophosphate, the structure of the oxime as well as rates of several other cholinesterase's reactions. Besides reactivating cholinesterases, oximes also reversibly inhibit both cholinesterases and protect them from phosphorylation by OP. We tested oximes varying in the type of ring (pyridinium and/or imidazolium), the length and type of the linker between rings, and in the position of the oxime group on the ring to find more effective oximes to reactivate tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte AChE and plasma BChE. Herein we bring an overview of in vitro interactions of native and tabun-inhibited AChE and BChE with oximes together with conformational analysis of the oximes relating molecular properties to their reactivation potency.(author)