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[en] More than 25% of patients diagnosed with endometrial carcinoma have an invasive primary cancer accompanied by metastases. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays an important role in reproduction. In mammals, expression of GnRH-II is higher than GnRH-I in reproductive tissues. Here, we examined the effect of a GnRH-II agonist on the motility of endometrial cancer cells and its mechanism of action in endometrial cancer therapy. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to determine the expression of the GnRH-I receptor protein in human endometrial cancer. The activity of MMP-2 in the conditioned medium was determined by gelatin zymography. Cell motility was assessed by invasion and migration assay. GnRH-I receptor si-RNA was applied to knockdown GnRH-I receptor. The GnRH-I receptor was expressed in the endometrial cancer cells. The GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility in a dose-dependent manner. The GnRH-II agonist induced the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the phosphorylation was abolished by ERK1/2 inhibitor (U0126) and the JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Cell motility promoted by GnRH-II agonist was suppressed in cells that were pretreated with U0126 and SP600125. Moreover, U0126 and SP600125 abolished the GnRH-II agonist-induced activation of MMP-2. The inhibition of MMP-2 with MMP-2 inhibitor (OA-Hy) suppressed the increase in cell motility in response to the GnRH-II agonist. Enhanced cell motility mediated by GnRH-II agonist was also suppressed by the knockdown of the endogenous GnRH-I receptor using siRNA. Our study indicates that GnRH-II agonist promoted cell motility of endometrial cancer cells through the GnRH-I receptor via the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK, and the subsequent, MAPK-dependent activation of MMP-2. Our findings represent a new concept regarding the mechanism of GnRH-II-induced cell motility in endometrial cancer cells and suggest the possibility of exploring GnRH-II as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of human endometrial cancer
[en] The phosphorylation of the serine hydroxyl group in the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inactivates this essential enzyme in neurotransmission. Its related enzyme butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) also interacts with organophosphorus compounds (OP) scavenging anti-cholinesterase agents and protects synaptic AChE from inhibition. Oximes are reactivators of AChE phosphorylated by OP including insecticides and nerve agents. The effectiveness of oxime-assisted reactivation is primarily attributed to the nucleophilic displacement rate of organophosphate, but efficiency varies with the structure of the bound organophosphate, the structure of the oxime as well as rates of several other cholinesterase's reactions. Besides reactivating cholinesterases, oximes also reversibly inhibit both cholinesterases and protect them from phosphorylation by OP. We tested oximes varying in the type of ring (pyridinium and/or imidazolium), the length and type of the linker between rings, and in the position of the oxime group on the ring to find more effective oximes to reactivate tabun-inhibited human erythrocyte AChE and plasma BChE. Herein we bring an overview of in vitro interactions of native and tabun-inhibited AChE and BChE with oximes together with conformational analysis of the oximes relating molecular properties to their reactivation potency.(author)
[en] Bisphenol-A (BPA) is known to be a potent endocrine disrupter. Evidence is emerging that estrogen exerts a rapid influence on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the dendritic spine density, which requires activation of NMDA receptors. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BPA (ranging from 1 to 1000 nM), focusing on the rapid dynamic changes in dendritic filopodia and the expressions of estrogen receptor (ER) β and NMDA receptor, as well as the phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B in the cultured hippocampal neurons. A specific ER antagonist ICI 182,780 was used to examine the potential involvement of ERs. The results demonstrated that exposure to BPA (ranging from 10 to 1000 nM) for 30 min rapidly enhanced the motility and the density of dendritic filopodia in the cultured hippocampal neurons, as well as the phosphorylation of NR2B (pNR2B), though the expressions of NMDA receptor subunits NR1, NR2B, and ERβ were not changed. The antagonist of ERs completely inhibited the BPA-induced increases in the filopodial motility and the number of filopodia extending from dendrites. The increased pNR2B induced by BPA (100 nM) was also completely eliminated. Furthermore, BPA attenuated the effects of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2) on the dendritic filopodia outgrowth and the expression of pNR2B when BPA was co-treated with 17β-E2. The present results suggest that BPA, like 17β-E2, rapidly results in the enhanced motility and density of dendritic filopodia in the cultured hippocampal neurons with the concomitant activation of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B via an ER-mediated signaling pathway. Meanwhile, BPA suppressed the enhancement effects of 17β-E2 when it coexists with 17β-E2. These results provided important evidence suggesting the neurotoxicity of the low levels of BPA during the early postnatal development of the brain.
[en] This review outlines the major achievements in design of novel chemical insecticides and acaricides, especially those with non-standard mechanisms of action, viz., neonicotinoids and oxidative phosphorylation decouplers. The bibliography includes 119 references.
[en] Cardiovirus infections inhibit nucleocytoplasmic trafficking by Leader protein-induced phosphorylation of Phe/Gly-containing nucleoporins (Nups). Recombinant Leader from encephalomyocarditis virus, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus and Saffold virus target the same subset of Nups, including Nup62 and Nup98, but not Nup50. Reporter cell lines with fluorescence mCherry markers for M9, RS and classical SV40 import pathways, as well as the Crm1-mediated export pathway, all responded to transfection with the full panel of Leader proteins, showing consequent cessation of path-specific active import/export. For this to happen, the Nups had to be presented in the context of intact nuclear pores and exposed to cytoplasmic extracts. The Leader phosphorylation cascade was not effective against recombinant Nup proteins. The findings support a model of Leader-dependent Nup phosphorylation with the purpose of disrupting Nup-transportin interactions. - Highlights: • Nup98, but not Nup50 becomes phosphorylated by cardiovirus Leader protein-dependent mechanisms. • At least four independent nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways are inhibited by this process. • Nups must be presented in a nuclear pore context for Leader-directed phosphorylation. • Leader, by itself, does not cause activation of cellular kinases
[en] The purpose of the this project provides new application areas using naturally occurring flavonoids, cenetpedegrass extracts, for improving immune system and used as ingredients for feed-stuff. In order to provide the immune improving effects of centipedegrass, cell and animal experiments were carried out. Research scope includes determine the effect of centipedegrass extracts on immune functions using LPS-induced RAW cells and found that cytokines, IL-6 and IL-10, which were induced by LPS, were reduced by inhibiting phosphorylation of STAT-3, determine the effects of immune stimulating activity of centipedegrass in animals, cenetipedegrass extracts were administrated once a day for 2 weeks. After treated with LPS, immune suppressor, cytokines were down regulated, however, the cytokines in the group pretreated with centipedegrass extracts, were not down regulated as much as non treated group. The overall mechanism of immune stimulating effect of centipedegrass extracts, was that STAT-3 phosphorylation was inhibited by contipedegrass extracts
[en] GAREM1 (Grb2-associated regulator of Erk/MAPK1) is an adaptor protein that is involved in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. The nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on the nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is located at the N-terminal CABIT (cysteine-containing, all in Themis) domain. Here, we identified 14-3-3ε as a GAREM-binding protein, and its binding site is closely located to the NLS. This 14-3-3 binding site was of the atypical type and independent of GAREM phosphorylation. Moreover, the binding of 14-3-3 had an effect on the nuclear localization of GAREM1. Unexpectedly, we observed that the CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the C-terminal SAM (sterile alpha motif) domain. This association might be inhibited by binding of 14-3-3 at the CABIT domain. Our results demonstrate that the mechanism underlying the nuclear localization of GAREM1 depends on its NLS in the CABIT domain, which is controlled by the binding of 14-3-3 and the C-terminal SAM domain. We suggest that the interplay between 14-3-3, SAM domain and CABIT domain might be responsible for the distribution of GAREM1 in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • 14-3-3ε regulated the nuclear localization of GAREM1 as its binding partner. • The atypical 14-3-3 binding site of GAREM1 is located near the NLS in CABIT domain. • The CABIT domain had intramolecular association with the SAM domain in GAREM1. • Subcellular localization of GAREM1 is affected with its CABIT-SAM interaction
[en] CUL4A; an E3 ubiquitin ligase is involved in the degradation of negative regulators of cell cycle such as p21, p27, p53, etc., through polyubiquitination-mediated protein degradation. The functional role(s) of CUL4A proteins on their targets are well characterized; however, the transcriptional regulation of CUL4A, particularly at its promoter level is not yet studied. Therefore, in this study, using computational tools, we found cAMP responsive elements (CRE) at the locations of − 926 and − 764 with respect to transcription state site + 1 of CUL4A promoter. Hence, we investigated the role of CREB on the regulation of CUL4A transcription. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) data clearly showed increased levels of promoter occupancy of both CREB and pCREB on both CREs of CUL4A promoter. As expected, the expression of CUL4A increases and decreases upon the overexpression of and knocking down of CREB, respectively. Moreover, the inhibition of ERK pathway by U0126 not only reduces the CREB activation but also the CUL4A levels suggesting that CREB is the upstream activator of CUL4A transcription. The reduction of CUL4A levels upon the knocking down of CREB or by U0126 treatment increases the protein levels of CUL4A substrates such as p21 and p27. It is reported that CUL4A activates the ERK1/2 transcription and ERK1/2 pathway activates the CREB by phosphorylation. Based on our data and earlier findings, we report that CREB regulates the CUL4A levels positively which in turn activates the CREB through ERK1/2 pathway in the form of auto-regulatory looped mechanism.This suggests that CUL4A might be involved in proliferation of cancer cells by regulating the ERK1/2 and CREB signaling.
[en] AIMP1 (also known as p43) is a factor associated with a macromolecular aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase (ARS) complex but also plays diverse regulatory roles in various physiological processes. Here, we report that AIMP1 negatively regulates TGF-β signaling via stabilization of Smurf2. TGF-β-dependent phosphorylation and nuclear localization of R-Smads, induction of target genes, and growth arrest were increased in AIMP1-deficient or -suppressed cells. In AIMP1-deficient or suppressed cells, the Smurf2 level was decreased. Various binding assays demonstrated the direction interaction of the C-terminal region of AIMP1 directly with the Smad7-binding region of Smurf2. The association of Smurf2 with Smad7 and its ubiquitination were inhibited by AIMP1, thereby protecting its autocatalytic degradation stimulated by Smad7. Thus, this work suggests the novel activity of AIMP1 as a component of negative feedback loop of TGF-β signaling
[en] β-catenin plays a role in intracellular adhesion and regulating gene expression. The latter role is associated with its oncogenic properties. Phosphorylation of β-catenin controls its intracellular expression but mechanism/s that regulates the nuclear localization of β-catenin is unknown. We demonstrate that O-GlcNAc glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation) of β-catenin negatively regulates its levels in the nucleus. We show that normal prostate cells (PNT1A) have significantly higher amounts of O-GlcNAcylated β-catenin compared to prostate cancer (CaP) cells. The total nuclear levels of β-catenin are higher in the CaP cells than PNT1A but only a minimal fraction of the nuclear β-catenin in the CaP cells are O-GlcNAcylated. Increasing the levels of O-GlcNAcylated β-catenin in the CaP cells with PUGNAc (O- (2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-gluco-pyranosylidene) amino-N-phenylcarbamate) treatment is associated with a progressive decrease in the levels of β-catenin in the nucleus. TOPFlash reporter assay and mRNA expressions of β-catenin's target genes indicate that O-GlcNAcylation of β-catenin results in a decrease in its transcriptional activity. We define a novel modification of β-catenin that regulates its nuclear localization and transcriptional function