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[en] Highlights: • Tyrosine kinase Fer preferentially binds to highly curved membranes via its FX domain. • An algorithmic search identified an intrinsically disordered region at the carboxy-terminal half of the FX domain. • The intrinsically disordered sequence forms an amphipathic helix upon binding to curved membranes. • Tyrosine kinase activity of Fer is enhanced by the presence of highly curved membranes. • -- Abstract: . Tyrosine kinases are important enzymes that mediate signal transduction at the plasma membrane. While the significance of membrane localization of tyrosine kinases has been well evaluated, the role of membrane curvature in their regulation is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that an intrinsically disordered region in the tyrosine kinase Fer acts as a membrane curvature sensor that preferentially binds to highly curved membranes in vitro. This region forms an amphipathic α-helix upon interaction with curved membranes, aligning hydrophobic residues on one side of the helical structure. Further, the tyrosine kinase activity of Fer is significantly enhanced by the membrane in a manner dependent on curvature. We propose a model for the regulation of Fer based on an intramolecular interaction and the curvature-dependent membrane binding mediated by its intrinsically disordered region.
[en] Highlights: • IKKβ is involved in membrane fusion. • IKKβ is required for initial formation and the regulation of the CBM complex. • IKKβ regulates CBM complex via phosphorylation of Bcl10 and IKKγ polyubiquitination. The current work investigates the notion that inducible clustering of signaling mediators of the IKK pathway is important for platelet activation. Thus, while the CARMA1, Bcl10, and MALT1 (CBM) complex is essential for triggering IKK/NF-κB activation upon platelet stimulation, the signals that elicit its formation and downstream effector activation remain elusive. We demonstrate herein that IKKβ is involved in membrane fusion, and serves as a critical protein kinase required for initial formation and the regulation of the CARMA1/MALT1/Bcl10/CBM complex in platelets. We also show that IKKβ regulates these processes via modulation of phosphorylation of Bcl10 and IKKγ polyubiquitination. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IKKβ regulates membrane fusion and the remodeling of the CBM complex formation.
[en] For more than four decades, the cyclic nucleotides cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cyclic GMP (cGMP) have been recognized as important signaling molecules within cells. Under normal physiological conditions, cyclic nucleotides regulate a myriad of biological processes such as cell growth and adhesion, energy homeostasis, neuronal signaling, and muscle relaxation. In addition, altered cyclic nucleotide signaling has been observed in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including cancer. While the distinct molecular alterations responsible for these effects vary depending on the specific cancer type, several studies have demonstrated that activation of cyclic nucleotide signaling through one of three mechanisms—induction of cyclic nucleotide synthesis, inhibition of cyclic nucleotide degradation, or activation of cyclic nucleotide receptors—is sufficient to inhibit proliferation and activate apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. These findings suggest that targeting cyclic nucleotide signaling can provide a strategy for the discovery of novel agents for the prevention and/or treatment of selected cancers
[en] Purine nucleoside phosphorylases (PNPs) catalyze the reversible phosphorolysis of nucleosides and are key enzymes involved in nucleotide metabolism. They are essential for normal cell function and can catalyze the transglycosylation. Crystals of E. coli PNP were grown in microgravity by the capillary counterdiffusion method through a gel layer. The three-dimensional structure of the enzyme was determined by the molecular-replacement method at 0.99 Å resolution. The structural features are considered, and the structure of E. coli PNP is compared with the structures of the free enzyme and its complexes with purine base derivatives established earlier. A comparison of the environment of the purine base in the complex of PNP with formycin A and of the pyrimidine base in the complex of uridine phosphorylase with thymidine revealed the main structural features of the base-binding sites. Coordinates of the atomic model determined with high accuracy were deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB-ID: 4RJ2).
[en] Highlights: • miR-15b-5p inhibits proliferation of OS cells. • miR-15b-5p reverse the Warburg effect in OS cells. • PDK4 is a direct target of miR-15b-5p. • PDK4 promotes the proliferation of OS cells and contributes to the Warburg effect in OS cells. • miR-15b-5p exerted anti-cancer effects on OS via inhibiting the expression of PDK4. Blocking aerobic glycolysis has been proposed as an attractive therapeutic strategy for impairing the proliferation of cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that miR-15b-5p was downregulated in osteosarcoma (OS) and that lower expression of miR-15b-5p promoted proliferation and contributed to the Warburg effect in OS cells. Mechanistically, miR-15b-5p acted as a tumor suppressor in OS by directly targeting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 and inhibiting its expression. These results reveal a previously unknown function of miR-15b-5p in OS, which is associated with metabolic alterations that promote cancer progression. miR-15b-5p may play an essential role in the molecular therapy of patients with OS.
[en] The ubiquitin–proteasome system is essential for multiple physiological processes via selective degradation of target proteins and has been shown to plays a critical role in human cancer. Activation of oncogenic factors and inhibition of tumor suppressors have been shown to be essential for cancer development, and protein ubiquitination has been linked to the regulation of oncogenic factors and tumor suppressors. Three kinases, AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and IκB kinase, we refer to as oncokinases, are activated in multiple human cancers. We and others have identified several key downstream targets that are commonly regulated by these oncokinases, some of which are regulated directly or indirectly via ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation, including FOXO3, β-catenin, myeloid cell leukemia-1, and Snail. In this review, we summarize these findings from our and other groups and discuss potential future studies and applications in the clinic.
[en] Highlights: • The multi-target drugs of liver cancer bringing new hope for advance HCC patients. • Sorafenib, regorafenib, and lenvatinib have inhibitory effect on the metastasis and invasion. • They can down-regulate the expression of MMPs and up-regulate the TIMPs level. To investigate the effect of multi-kinase kinase inhibitors (sorafenib; regorafenib; lenvatinib) on the invasion and metastasis of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, and the outcome of this effect on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs), yet unclarified. Cells were subjected to four different treatments: blank control group, sorafenib (10 μmol/L) treatment group, regorafenib (20 mmol/L) treatment group, and lenvatinib (4 μmol/L) treatment group. Anti-invasion and anti-metastasis effects were tested using the wound-healing assay and transwell invasion assay. Real-time PCR and Western blot analyses were used to determine the impact of sorafenib, regorafenib, and lenvatinib on the gene expression of MMPs and TIMPs in the two HCC lines (Hep3B and SMMC-7721). Results from the wound-healing and transwell invasion assays showed the three tested anti-cancer drugs to have a significant inhibitory effect on the metastasis and invasion of HCC cells. Real-time PCR and western blot analyses revealed that sorafenib down-regulated the expressions of MMP-7,10,16 and up-regulated those of TIMP-1,3,4, regorafenib down-regulated the expression of MMP-1 and up-regulated TIMP-3 gene expression, and lenvatinib down-regulated the expressions of MMP-1,2,7,9,10,16 and up-regulated those of TIMP-1,3,4. However, these three targeted anti-cancer drugs seem to have no significant regulatory effect on the expressions of other MMPs and TIMPs family genes. In conclusion, sorafenib, regorafenib, and lenvatinib inhibit the invasion and metastasis of HCC cells by regulating MMPs/TIMPs expression levels.
[en] Highlights: • Disruption of LRRK2 in Zebrafish leads to hyperactivity at adult stage. • Neurological and immunological pathways are disrupted in LRRK2 mutant. • Disruption of LRRK2 in Zebrafish leads to a weakened antibacterial response. As a protein with complex domain structure and roles in kinase, GTPase and scaffolding, LRRK2 is believed to be an important orchestration node leading to several cascades of signal transduction rather than one specific pathway. LRRK2 variants were found to be associated with Parkinson's disease, Crohn's disease and leprosy. Here we disrupt LRRK2 in zebrafish and found hyperactivity rather than hypoactivity in adult zebrafish mutants. By RNA-seq we found genes involved in infectious disease and immunological disease were notably affected. Functional studies also revealed a weakened antibacterial response in LRRK2 mutant. This mutant can be further explored for revealing molecular mechanisms and modeling of LRRK2 related diseases.
[en] Celastrol pretreatment has been shown to protect against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of celastrol pretreatment on I/R injury and to further explore whether its mechanism of action was associated with the inhibition of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) expression via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway.
[en] Highlights: • The plant TOS motif core sequence interacting with Raptor was identified in ATG13 as well as S6K1 of the Arabidopsis. • Autophagy response was observed when the plant TOS core sequence was deleted from AtATG13. • Phosphorylation of AtATG13 was reduced significantly when the plant TOS core sequence was deleted. In our previous studies, we have demonstrated that a stretch of amino-acid sequences identified from Arabidopsis ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (AtS6K1) provided a plant version of the TOS (TOR-signaling) motif, mediating the interaction with the Raptor protein in the TOR (Target of Rapamycin) kinase complex. Here we report the presence of same element in Arabidopsis Autophagy related-13 (AtATG13) protein, which is a key component of the plant autophagy response. Its composition is nearly identical to that found in the AtS6K1 in the five-amino-acid core sequence, and the presence of this five-amino-acid sequence was found to be essential for its interaction with the Raptor protein. A mutant AtATG13 protein lacking this five-amino-acid element conferred an elevated autophagy response and could not effectively phosphorylated by TOR kinase activity, demonstrating its role in mediating the TOR signaling to the components that carry it as a possible TOS motif. A ligand-binding simulation model using the MM-PBSA method indicates that both of the five-amino-acid sequence elements of AtS6K1 and AtATG13 have strong probability of making stable interface with the Raptor binding pocket, corroborating our proposition for this element as the plant TOS motif.