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[en] Highlights: • Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) as a photosynthetic parameter in physiology. • Real-time monitoring of photosynthesis behaviors under light condition. • PRI possesses a strong correlation with qZ rather than qE. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is the most important photoprotective system in higher plants. NPQ can be divided into several steps according to the timescale of relaxation of chlorophyll fluorescence after reaching a steady state (i.e., the fast phase, qE; middle phase, qZ or qT; and slow phase, qI). The dissipation of excess energy as heat during the xanthophyll cycle, a large component of NPQ, is detectable during the fast to middle phase (sec to min). Although thermal dissipation is primarily investigated using indirect methods such as chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements, such analyses require dark adaptation or the application of a saturating pulse during measurement, making it difficult to continuously monitor this process. Here, we designed an unconventional technique for real-time monitoring of changes in thylakoid lumen pH (as reflected by changes in xanthophyll pigment content) based on the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which we estimated by measuring light-driven leaf reflectance at 531 nm. We analyzed two Arabidopsis thaliana mutants, npq1 (unable to convert violaxanthin to zeaxanthin due to inhibited violaxanthin de-epoxidase [VDE] activity) and npq4 (lacking PsbS protein), to uncover the regulator of the PRI. The PRI was variable in wild-type and npq4 plants, but not in npq1, indicating that the PRI is related to xanthophyll cycle-dependent thermal energy quenching (qZ) rather than the linear electron transport rate or NPQ. In situ lumen pH substitution using a pH-controlled buffer solution caused a shift in PRI. These results suggest that the PRI reflects only xanthophyll cycle conversion and is therefore a useful parameter for monitoring thylakoid lumen pH (reflecting VDE activity) in vivo.
[en] Highlights: • In vivo flagellar redox potential of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was assessed. • Non-ratiometric redox biosensor was induced into flagella at the constant amount. • The standard curve could be drawn from the in vitro experiments. • Fluorescence of live cells was compared with the standard curve for quantification. • The in vivo redox potential changes depending on the light conditions for culture. Cellular reducing-oxidizing (redox) potential is mainly determined by the concentration ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathiones. It is normally kept at a moderately reduced state but affected to some extent by metabolic activities such as respiration and/or photosynthesis. Changes in redox potential induce many cellular activities collectively called redox responses. For an understanding of the dynamics of the cellular redox responses, redox potential must be accurately assessed in vivo. In this study, we developed a method to measure the in vivo redox potential in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using Oba-Qc, a recently developed redox-monitoring protein. Taking advantage of the periodic flagellar assembly, we introduced Oba-Qc molecules into the flagella at a constant density. Fluorescence signals from flagella in live cells, calibrated against the fluorescence from the samples in buffers of known redox potentials, determined the redox potential to be ∼-250 mV in the light and ∼-280 mV in the dark. Introduction of a sensor protein fused with a structural protein that assembles at a constant density will be also applicable for measurements of various kinds cellular signals in flagella.
[en] The data of photosynthetic activity and stomatic aperture of bean-seedlings leaves, and the relations obtained with both results are showed. It has been observed that the product of photosynthetic activity by the resistance to transpiration measured by a porosimeter is a constant, between some limits. (author)
[en] Canopies in evergreen coniferous plantations often consist of various-aged needles. However, the effect of needle age on the photosynthetic responses to thinning remains ambiguous. Photosynthetic responses of different-aged needles to thinning were investigated in a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation. A dual isotope approach [simultaneous measurements of stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes] was employed to distinguish between biochemical and stomatal limitations to photosynthesis. Our results showed that increases in net photosynthesis rates upon thinning only occurred in the current-year and one-year-old needles, and not in the two- to four-year-old needles. The increased δ13C and declined δ18O in current year needles of trees from thinned stands indicated that both the photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance resulted in increasing photosynthesis. In one-year-old needles of trees from thinned stands, an increased needle δ13C and a constant needle δ18O were observed, indicating the photosynthetic capacity rather than stomatal conductance contributed to the increasing photosynthesis. The higher water-soluble nitrogen content in current-year and one-year-old needles in thinned trees also supported that the photosynthetic capacity plays an important role in the enhancement of photosynthesis. In contrast, the δ13C, δ18O and water-soluble nitrogen in the two- to four-year-old needles were not significantly different between the control and thinned trees. Thus, the thinning effect on photosynthesis depends on needle age in a Chinese fir plantation. Our results highlight that the different responses of different-aged needles to thinning have to be taken into account for understanding and modelling ecosystem responses to management, especially under the expected environmental changes in future. - Highlights: • Increase of photosynthesis upon thinning only occurred in two youngest needles. • Thinning increased δ13C and declined δ18O in current year needles. • Thinning resulted in an increased δ13C and a constant δ18O in 1-year-old needles. • Thinning had no effect on net photosynthesis, δ13C and δ18O in old needles. • Increases of water-soluble N and photosynthesis upon thinning were paralleled.
[en] A Paulownia-winter wheat intercropping experiment with the object of quantifying photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and its effect on wheat yield was conducted 60 km south of Zhengzhou (35°N 113°E), Henan Province, PR China, from September 1991 to July 1992 using a tree and crop interface approach. The middle row of three 240 m long rows of 11-year-old trees was studied for its effects on the yield of irrigated and fertilized winter wheat. Photosynthetic photon flux density (Qp) was quantified using a split-plot design with four blocks. There were four distance (subplot) treatments (2.5 m, 5 m, 10 m and 20 m) and two direction (main plot) treatments laid out to the east and west of a north-south tree line. Results showed no difference in direction effects but Qp did affect total grain weight (P = 0.0047) between 2.5 m and 20 m. A regression equation was fit using the mean for each distance treatment: Y = 391.7 + 4.57X with r2 = 0.9310 indicating a yield increase of 4.57 g m−2 (45.7 kg ha−1) over a distance of 2.5 m to 20 m from the trees
[en] In this paper the authors make certain general observations and comments concerning the role of photosynthesis in the labeling of natural compounds, as well as some recommendations based on recent results regarding the labeling of a new anti-malaria drug extracted from a plant and originally known to traditional Chinese medicine. (author). 6 refs
[en] The present paper contains the data of photosynthetic activity and stomatic aperture of bean-seedlings Ieaves, and the relations obtained with both results. It has been observed that the product of photosynthetic activity by the resistance; to transpiration measured by a promoter ia a constant, between some limits. (Author) 45 refs
[en] Highlights: • Reactive oxygen species were major drivers of evolution. • Reductive stress may not be a very useful concept. • Major antioxidant defences include restriction of O2 levels and sequestration of iron ions into non-redox active forms. • These defences allowed aerobic life to evolve but led to a battle between host and pathogens for iron. The first life forms evolved in a highly reducing environment. This reduced state is still carried by cells today, which makes the concept of “reductive stress” somewhat redundant. When oxygen became abundant on the Earth, due to the evolution of photosynthesis, life forms had to adapt or become extinct. Living organisms did adapt, proliferated and an explosion of new life forms resulted, using reactive oxygen species (ROS) to drive their evolution. Adaptation to oxygen and its reduction intermediates necessitated the simultaneous evolution of select antioxidant defences, carefully regulated to allow ROS to perform their major roles. Clearly this “oxidative stress” did not cause a major problem to the evolution of complex life forms. Why not? Iron and oxygen share a close relationship in aerobic evolution. Iron is used in proteins to transport oxygen, promote electron transfers, and catalyse chemical reactions. In all of these functions, iron is carefully sequestered within proteins and restricted from reacting with ROS, this sequestration being one of our major antioxidant defences. Iron was abundant to life forms before the appearance of oxygen. However, oxygen caused its oxidative precipitation from solution and thereby decreased its bioavailability and thus the risk of iron-dependent oxidative damage. Micro-organisms had to adapt and develop strategies involving siderophores to acquire iron from the environment and eventually their host. This battle for iron between bacteria and animal hosts continues today, and is a much greater daily threat to our survival than “oxidative stress” and “redox stress”.