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[en] The data of photosynthetic activity and stomatic aperture of bean-seedlings leaves, and the relations obtained with both results are showed. It has been observed that the product of photosynthetic activity by the resistance to transpiration measured by a porosimeter is a constant, between some limits. (author)
[en] Canopies in evergreen coniferous plantations often consist of various-aged needles. However, the effect of needle age on the photosynthetic responses to thinning remains ambiguous. Photosynthetic responses of different-aged needles to thinning were investigated in a Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantation. A dual isotope approach [simultaneous measurements of stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes] was employed to distinguish between biochemical and stomatal limitations to photosynthesis. Our results showed that increases in net photosynthesis rates upon thinning only occurred in the current-year and one-year-old needles, and not in the two- to four-year-old needles. The increased δ13C and declined δ18O in current year needles of trees from thinned stands indicated that both the photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance resulted in increasing photosynthesis. In one-year-old needles of trees from thinned stands, an increased needle δ13C and a constant needle δ18O were observed, indicating the photosynthetic capacity rather than stomatal conductance contributed to the increasing photosynthesis. The higher water-soluble nitrogen content in current-year and one-year-old needles in thinned trees also supported that the photosynthetic capacity plays an important role in the enhancement of photosynthesis. In contrast, the δ13C, δ18O and water-soluble nitrogen in the two- to four-year-old needles were not significantly different between the control and thinned trees. Thus, the thinning effect on photosynthesis depends on needle age in a Chinese fir plantation. Our results highlight that the different responses of different-aged needles to thinning have to be taken into account for understanding and modelling ecosystem responses to management, especially under the expected environmental changes in future. - Highlights: • Increase of photosynthesis upon thinning only occurred in two youngest needles. • Thinning increased δ13C and declined δ18O in current year needles. • Thinning resulted in an increased δ13C and a constant δ18O in 1-year-old needles. • Thinning had no effect on net photosynthesis, δ13C and δ18O in old needles. • Increases of water-soluble N and photosynthesis upon thinning were paralleled.
[en] A Paulownia-winter wheat intercropping experiment with the object of quantifying photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and its effect on wheat yield was conducted 60 km south of Zhengzhou (35°N 113°E), Henan Province, PR China, from September 1991 to July 1992 using a tree and crop interface approach. The middle row of three 240 m long rows of 11-year-old trees was studied for its effects on the yield of irrigated and fertilized winter wheat. Photosynthetic photon flux density (Qp) was quantified using a split-plot design with four blocks. There were four distance (subplot) treatments (2.5 m, 5 m, 10 m and 20 m) and two direction (main plot) treatments laid out to the east and west of a north-south tree line. Results showed no difference in direction effects but Qp did affect total grain weight (P = 0.0047) between 2.5 m and 20 m. A regression equation was fit using the mean for each distance treatment: Y = 391.7 + 4.57X with r2 = 0.9310 indicating a yield increase of 4.57 g m−2 (45.7 kg ha−1) over a distance of 2.5 m to 20 m from the trees
[en] In this paper the authors make certain general observations and comments concerning the role of photosynthesis in the labeling of natural compounds, as well as some recommendations based on recent results regarding the labeling of a new anti-malaria drug extracted from a plant and originally known to traditional Chinese medicine. (author). 6 refs
[en] The present paper contains the data of photosynthetic activity and stomatic aperture of bean-seedlings Ieaves, and the relations obtained with both results. It has been observed that the product of photosynthetic activity by the resistance; to transpiration measured by a promoter ia a constant, between some limits. (Author) 45 refs
[en] This study was conducted to investigate the changes in leaf physiological parameters to abiotic stress induced by different levels of cement dust. On day 15, Arachis hypogaea L. plants (sowing day was considered as day 0) were divided into six groups, and cement was sprinkled over plants with the help of hand pump, twice a week at T1 (5 g pot−1), T2 (8 g pot−1), T3 (10 g pot−1), T4 (15 g pot−1), T5 (20 g pot−1), and T0/control (0 g pot−1), until fruit maturity. Morphometric parameters such as root and shoot length, leaf area, and seed weight were significantly higher in T0, while the minimum was recorded in T5. Physiological analyses of leaves and roots revealed a remarkable reduction (p < 0.05) in sugar, amino acid, and protein contents, while the concentration of enzymatic antioxidants was increased in cement-treated plants. The concentration of abscisic acid in leaves was significantly higher in treatment groups as compared with control, while gibberellic acid concentration was low. Strikingly, cement dust decreases the level of leaf photosynthetic pigments, reduces stomatal conductance, and adversely affects photosynthesis. Leaf histological analysis revealed confirmatory evidence of stomatal closure, cell damage, reduced cell area, and abridged leaf thickness. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidence to estimate cement dust as a critical abiotic stress factor, which has adverse effects on photosynthesis, leaf anatomical features, stomatal functioning, and productivity. Our work opens new avenues for a deep portfolio of cement-based stress mediating pathophysiology in Arachis hypogaea.
[en] In this study we tested and compared a multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model in their ability to predict stomatal conductance to ozone (gst) using leaf-level data from oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica Plenck). For oilseed rape, the multiplicative model and the coupled model were able to explain 72% and 73% of the observed gst variance, respectively. For broccoli, the models were able to explain 53% and 51% of the observed gst variance, respectively. These results support the coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model as a valid alternative to the multiplicative stomatal model for O3 flux modelling, in terms of predictive performance. - A multiplicative stomatal model and a coupled semi-empirical stomatal-photosynthesis model performed equally well when tested against leaf-level data for oilseed rape and broccoli.