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[en] We present our scientific and philosophical analysis of the comments made in the recent paper of A.P. Kirk, “An Analysis of Quantum Coherent Solar Photovoltaic Cells” Physica B 407 (2012) 544. We highlight the key role of quantum coherence in the enhancement of the photocell power without violating the laws of thermodynamics
[en] Due largely to recent dramatic cost reductions, photovoltaics (PVs) are poised to make a significant contribution to electricity supply. In particular, distributed applications of PV on rooftops, brownfields, and other similar applications – hold great technical potential. In order for this potential to be realized, however, PV must be “cost-effective”—that is, it must be sufficiently financially appealing to attract large amounts of investment capital. Electricity costs for most commercial and industrial end-users come in two forms: consumption (kWh) and demand (kW). Although rates vary, for a typical larger commercial or industrial user, demand charges account for about ∼40% of total electricity costs. This paper uses a case study of PV on a large university campus to reveal that even very large PV installations will often provide very small demand reductions. As a result, it will be very difficult for PV to demonstrate cost-effectiveness for large commercial customers, even if PV costs continue to drop. If policymakers would like PV to play a significant role in electricity generation – for economic development, carbon reduction, or other reasons – then rate structures will need significant adjustment, or improved distributed storage technologies will be needed. - Highlights: ► Demand charges typically account for ∼40% of total electricity costs for larger electricity users. ► Distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems provide minimal demand charge reductions. ► As a result, PVs are not a financially viable alternative to centralized electricity. ► Electricity rate structures will need changes for PV to be a major electricity source.
[en] Highlights: ► To improve the efficiency of PV systems, under different temperature and irradiance conditions. ► The MPPT and different control method for the induction motor were applied. ► The DTC in PV pumping system introduced and performance studied. ► The introductions of DTC in PV systems are very promising. ► Optimizing the water pumping system speed response characteristic by DTC. - Abstract: We aim to find a better control and optimization among the different functions of a solar pumping system. The photovoltaic panel can provide a maximum power only for defined output voltage and current. In addition, the operation to get the maximum power depends on the terminals of load, mostly a non-linear load like induction motor. In this work, we propose an intelligent control method for the maximum power point tracking of a photovoltaic system under variable temperature and irradiance conditions. The system was tested without maximum power point tracking, with the use of Scalar-Based control motor, but we cannot maintain the speed optimal. Next, we developed several methods for the control. Finally, we have chosen the Direct Torque Control.
[en] Perovskite solar cells exhibiting ~ 14–15% efficiency were experimentally measured using current–voltage (I–V) and capacitance–voltage (C–V) techniques in order to extract material and device properties, and understand the action of photovoltaic (PV) operation. Deep analyses were carried out on dark- and illuminated I–V curves, and dark C–V curves. Results were compared with those of graded bandgap solar cells fabricated on inorganic n-type window layers. These analyses according to a physicist’s point of view lead to understand the perovskite solar cell as a graded bandgap solar cell built on a p-type window layer. I–V and C–V results show very similar behaviour and the principle of PV action is identical. Once the stability issues with perovskites are solved, these devices have very high potential of producing next generation solar cells reaching at least mid-20% efficiency values.
[en] This paper presents a critical view of Florida's photovoltaic (PV) subsidy system and proposes an econometric model of PV system installation and generation costs. Using information on currently installed systems, average installation cost relations for residential and commercial systems are estimated and cost-efficient scales of installation panel wattage are identified. Productive efficiency in annual generating capacity is also examined under flexible panel efficiency assumptions. We identify potential gains in efficiency and suggest changes in subsidy system constraints, providing important guidance for the implementation of future incentive programs. Specifically, we find that the subsidy system discouraged residential applicants from installing at the cost-efficient scale but over-incentivized commercial applicants, resulting in inefficiently sized installations. - Highlights: ► Describe a PV solar incentive system in the U.S. state of Florida. ► Combine geocoded installation site data with a detailed irradiance map. ► Estimate installation and production costs across a large sample. ► Identify inefficiencies in the incentive system. ► Suggest changes to policy that would improve economic efficiency.
[en] Following the recent discovery of a bulk photovoltaic effect in the Pb[(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.68Ti0.32]O3 crystal, we report here more than one order of magnitude improvement of photovoltaicity as well as its poling dependence in the related composition of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate noted Pb[(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.30]O3. Photocurrent measurements versus light intensity reveal a remarkable hysteresis in photocarrier dynamics clearly demonstrating charge generation, trapping and release processes. (paper)
[en] In this paper we present and discuss the results of an expert elicitation survey on solar technologies. Sixteen leading European experts from the academic world, the private sector and international institutions took part in this expert elicitation survey on Photovoltaic (PV) and Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technologies. The survey collected probabilistic information on (1) how Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) investments will impact the future costs of solar technologies and (2) the potential for solar technology deployment both in OECD and non-OECD countries. Understanding the technological progress and the potential of solar PV and CPS technologies is crucial to draft appropriate energy policies. The results presented in this paper are thus relevant for the policy making process and can be used as better input data in integrated assessment and energy models. - Highlights: ► With constant public support at least one solar technology will become cost-competitive with fossil fuels. ► Demonstration should become a key area of funding. ► Without climate policy (carbon price), by 2030 solar technologies will not be cost-competitive. ► The EU will first achieve a breakthrough in production costs. ► The share of electricity production from solar will never exceed 30%.
[en] The lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) can be observed in semiconductors by irradiating a light spot position between electrodes on sample's surface. Because lateral photovoltaic voltage (LPV) is sensitively changed by light spot position, a LPE device has been tried as a position-sensitive detector. This study discusses the correlation between LPV and conductivity in p-type silicon and nano-structured Au deposited p-type silicon (nano-Au silicon), respectively. Conductivity measurement of the sample was carried out using the four-wire method to eliminate contact resistance, and conductivity dependence on LPV was simultaneously measured by changing the light irradiation position. The result showed a strong correlation between conductivity and LPV in the p-type silicon sample. The correlation coefficient was 0.87. The correlation coefficient between LPV and conductivity for the nano-Au silicon sample was 0.41
[en] The author responds to the attempted tutorial (Chapin et al., Physica B (2013) ) on solar cell physics specifically as it relates to the hypothetical toy model quantum coherent solar cell (Scully, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 (2010) 207701 )
[en] Highlights: * Employing an organic triphenylamine dye as heterojunction interfacial modifier. * The use of modifier facilitates the compatibility between TiO2 and P3HT. * Interfacial modification promotes exciton dissociation, reduces charge recombination. * Voc and Jsc enhanced obviously, that improved photovoltaic performance to 2.01%. Interface control is an important approach in polymer based solar cells because the interface properties on bulk heterojunction can govern the device performance. We select an organic triphenylamine-type sensitizer to tune the interfacial characters in TiO2 nanorod array/poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) hybrid solar cell device. In addition to physically improving the compatibility between TiO2 nanorod and polymer contact junction, the introduction of modifier reduces the charge recombination, prolongs the electron lifetime, and thus optimizes the device performance.