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[en] A convenient approach to the synthesis of 14C-side chain labelled 1-naphthaleneacetic acids was developed through the reaction of naphthalene with glycolic acid in the presence of ferric oxide and aqueous hydrobromic acid. The various 14C-labelled glycolic acids are readily available intermediates or are easily prepared. The effects of some of the variables on the product yield, such as amounts of naphthalene, ferric oxide, aqueous hydrobromic acid, rate of heating etc. were briefly examined. The product is obtained in 25-30 percent yield (based on glycolic acid), when naphthalene (6 mmol), glycolic acid (1 mmol), ferric oxide (0.6 mg) and aqueous hydrobromic acid (Sp. gr. 1.48, 100 μl) are heated together to 220 deg C in a sealed tube over an 8 hour period. The synthesis of 14C-carboxyl labelled 1-naphthaleneacetic acid is described. (author). 2 refs.; 3 tabs
[en] We rationally designed and synthesized metallopolymers with organic 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (BDC) linkers with different lengths of oxyethylene side chains in order to examine the influence of side chains on the coordination characteristics. While in a previous report the BDC linkers with alkyl side chains were found to form three-dimensional (3D) isoreticular metal-organic framework (IRMOF) structures or one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymeric structures with short -O(CH2)6CH3 or long -O(CH2)9CH3 side chains, respectively, new BDC linkers with oxyethylene side chains of the same lengths, -(OCH2CH2)2CH3 and -(OCH2CH2)3CH3, form only 3D IRMOF structures. This result is attributed to the higher flexibility and smaller volume of oxyethylene side chains compared to alkyl side chains
[en] Phthalic acid esters (PAEs), presented in fabrics, surfactants and detergents, were discharged into the ecosystem during textile-dyeing wastewater treatment and might have adverse effects on water ecosystems. In this study, comprehensive investigations of the content and component distributions of 12 PAEs across different units of four textile-dyeing wastewater plants were carried out in Guangdong Province, China. Ecotoxicity assessments were also conducted based on risk quotients (RQs). On average, 93.54% TOC and 80.14% CODCr were removed following treatment at the four plants. The average concentration of Σ12PAEs in effluent was 11.78 μg/L. PAEs with highest concentrations were dimethylphthalate (6.58 μg/L), bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (2.23 μg/L), and dibutylphthalate (1.98 μg/L). The concentrations of the main toxic PAEs were 2.23 μg/L (bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate), 0.19 μg/L (diisononylphthalate) and 0.67 μg/L (dinoctylphthalate); corresponding RQs were 1.4, 0.55, and 0.54 for green algae, respectively. The RQs of Σ12PAEs in effluent of the four plants were >0.1, indicating that Σ12PAEs posed medium or higher ecological risk to fish, Daphnia and green algae. Physicochemical-biochemical system was found to be more effective than biochemical-physicochemical system for TOC and CODCr removal, because pre-physicochemical treatment helped to remove macromolecular organic substances, and reduced the competition with other pollutants during biochemical treatment. However, biochemical-physicochemical system was more effective than physicochemical-biochemical system for elimination of PAEs and for detoxification, since the biochemical treatment might produce the toxic PAEs that could helpfully be settled by post-physicochemical treatment. Moreover, ecotoxicity evaluation was recommended for current textile-dyeing wastewater treatment plants. - Highlights: • Twelve PAEs were detected from four textile-dyeing wastewater plants. • Tertiary treatment was required due to the increase of Σ12PAEs in the aeration basin. • PAEs posed medium/high ecological risk to fish, Daphnia and green algae. • Simultaneous assessment of TOC, COD, and ecotoxicity in wastewater was recommended.
[en] Results are presented of experiments performed using a new method to measure the naphthenic acid corrosion potential. The method consists of adding pure iron powder into a small autoclave containing the crude or oil sample. The test is then performed at a given temperature for one hour, after which the oil sample is filtered and the remaining liquid is sent for iron content determination (ppm). the tests are run at 7 different temperature levels, 3 more are run as repeated tests. A best-fitted curve is drawn through these 10 experimental points and the maximum point is thus determined. This becomes the main outcome of the test and it is used to give a measure of the naphthenic acid corrosion potential. The same general trends as observed in the past using the neutralization number ar TAN (Total Acid Number) is obtained. However, this new test seems capable of detecting anomalous cases where oil samples having larger values of TAN exhibit less creativity's than others having much lower values of TAN or where they show completely different corrosivity despite having similar or the same TAN. (Author) 10 refs
[en] The kinetics of visible-light-induced photopolymerization of dimethacrylate derived from phthalic acid, oligo(carbonate dimethacrylate), and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (MDF-2, OKM-2, and TGM-3, respectively) in the bulk and in the presence of 10–30 wt % 1-butanol and of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone as initiator was studied. The illuminance in the reaction zone was varied from 10 to 40 klx. Introduction of 10 wt % 1-butanol into dimethacrylates of grades MDF-2 and OKM-2 does not alter their photopolymerization kinetics, and a further increase in the alcohol concentration leads to a decrease in the photopolymerization rate. Addition of 10 wt % and larger amounts of 1-butanol to dimethacrylate of grade TGM-3 makes the dependence of the photopolymerization rate at 1% monomer conversion and of the time of reaching 1% monomer conversion on the actinic radiation intensity considerably more pronounced.
[en] Highlights: • Amphiphilic PP-g-GMA-OA nonwoven was prepared and characterized. • Synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was elucidated. • The effects of hydrophilic microdomain on diffusion resistance and energy barrier were elucidated. • Adsorbent material with amphiphilic structures showed faster adsorption rate and lager adsorption capacity. - Abstract: A kind of amphiphilic polypropylene nonwoven with hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain was prepared through electron beam induced graft polymerization and subsequent ring opening reaction and then utilized in the adsorption of phthalic acid esters (PAEs). To elucidate the superiority of such amphiphilic microdomain, a unique structure without hydrophilic part was constructed as comparison. In addition, the adsorption behaviors including adsorption kinetics, isotherms and pH effect were systematically investigated. The result indicated that the amphiphilic structure and the synergy between hydrophilic and hydrophobic microdomain could considerably improve the adsorption capacities, rate and affinity. Particularly the existence of hydrophilic microdomain could reduce the diffusion resistance and energy barrier in the adsorption process. These adsorption results showed that the amphiphilic PP nonwoven have the potential to be used in environmental application
[en] Concentration and spatial distribution of six phthalic acid esters (PAEs) and eight phenols in sediments of urban rivers, namely the Xi River (XR) and Pu River (PR) in Shenyang city, Northeast China were investigated and the ecological risk of these target pollutants was assessed based on the risk quotient (RQ) approach. Target PAEs and phenols were detected in most of sediment samples collected from the XR and PR. The concentrations of total PAEs in sediments varied from 22.4 to 369 μg/g dw in the XR and 3.71–46.9 μg/g dw in the PR. The levels of phenols ranged from 2.72 to 106 μg/g dw in the XR and 0.811–25.0 μg/g dw in the PR, respectively. The dominant pollutants in both XR and PR were DEHP, phenol and 4-methylphnol. The sampling locations XR1-3 in the XR suffered severe contamination from PAEs and phenols. The sites PR1 and PR6 were heavily polluted by phenols and PAEs, respectively. Almost all target PAEs and phenolic compounds in sediment of the XR exhibited medium or high ecological risk to organisms and the ecological risk in the PR mainly originated from PEAs, phenol and 4-methylphenol. These results would provide guidance for individual pollutant control and indicate that it is imperative to take some effective measures to reduce the pollution of those contaminants. - Highlights: • Six PAEs and eight phenols were detected in most of sediments from the XR and PR. • Contamination by PAEs and phenols in the XR was 10 times higher than that in the PR. • Dominant pollutants in both XR and PR were DEHP, phenol and 4-methylphnol. • Major PAEs and phenols in both rivers exhibited medium or high ecological risk. - Both the XR and PR were subjected to contamination by PAEs and phenols that exhibited medium or high ecological risk to benthic organisms.
[en] The electrochemically induced functionalization of carbon-based screen-printed-electrodes (SPEs) by phenyl groups, having one or two carboxylic functions, was achieved by reduction of in situ generated diazonium salts in aqueous media. The corresponding diazonium cations of 4-aminobenzoic acid, 4-aminophthalic acid, 3-(4-aminophenyl) propionic acid, 3-(4-aminophenyl)-2-propenoic acid and 5-aminoisophthalic acid were generated in situ with sodium nitrite in aqueous H_2SO_4. The electrochemical detection of Pb(II) with the grafted SPEs was investigated using Pb(II) 5 * 10"-"8 M solutions. The performances of the grafted SPEs were found to be dependent on the number of carboxylic groups, on their position on the phenyl ring, on the olefinic or the aliphatic character of the chain bearing the carboxylic group. The performances of mono-4-carboxyphenyl and 3,5-dicarboxyphenyl grafted SPEs for Cd(II) and Cu(II) trace detection were tested and compared. (authors)
[en] Highlights: • A Rhodococcus ruber strain degraded DBP and phenol. • Degradation kinetics of DBP or phenol fit modified first-order models. • Degradation interaction between DBP and phenol was studied by strain DP-2. • The degradation genes transcriptional were quantified by RT-qPCR. - Abstract: The bacterial strain DP-2, identified as Rhodococcus ruber, is able to effectively degrade di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and phenol. Degradation kinetics of DBP and phenol at different initial concentrations revealed DBP and phenol degradation to fit modified first-order models. The half-life of DBP degradation ranged from 15.81 to 27.75 h and phenol degradation from 14.52 to 45.52 h under the initial concentrations of 600–1200 mg/L. When strain DP-2 was cultured with a mixture of DBP (800 mg/L) and phenol (700 mg/L), DBP degradation rate was found to be only slightly influenced; however, phthalic acid (PA) accumulated, and phenol degradation was clearly inhibited during synchronous degradation. Transcriptional levels of degradation genes, phenol hydroxylase (pheu) and phthalate 3,4-dioxygenase (pht), decreased significantly more during synchronous degradation than during individual degradation. Quantitative estimation of individual or synchronous degradation kinetics is essential to manage mixed hazardous compounds through biodegradation in industrial waste disposal
[en] Environmentally important phthalic esters have been analyzed by GC-MS in terms of individual phthalic esters or total phthalic esters directly or after derivatization. Derivatization improves the chromatographic characteristics of the highly polar phthalic esters. This study focused on the GC-MS determination of the total phthalic esters and the individual phthalic esters simultaneously. The phthalic esters were hydrolyzed to phthalate and corresponding alcohols in 1 M NaOH solution at 90 .deg. C for 30 min followed by extraction with ethyl acetate after acidifcation. The phthalic acid and alcohols were simultaneously silyl derivatized using bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) to their corresponding silyl ester and ethers in the mixture of 60% acetone and 40% ethyl acetate at room temperature within 30 min. Because of the high reactivity of BSTFA with the phthalic acid and alcohols effective silyl derivatization was possible simultaneously. GC-MS analysis of the silyl derivatives of phthalic acid and alcohols was performed. The total phthalic ester content was estimated from the analytical result of phthalic silyl ester, while the individual phthalic ester was quantified from the analytical results of alcoholic silyl ethers. This technique was applied to spiked tab water and real seawater samples from the Lake Shihwa in Korea. The results were checked against the results from the direct GC-MS analysis of the phthalic esters and reasonable recoveries with high sensitivity were achieved. The recoveries were higher than 75% with low relative standard deviation (below 10%)