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[en] Camorim is a small, eutrophic reservoir in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with a phytoplankton community dominated most of the year by the filamentous diatom Aulacoseira spp. and the toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. As filamentous species can be a poor food for grazers, we hypothesize that phytoplankton from this reservoir would constrain cladoceran fitness due to nutritional limitation and/or toxicity when animals fed mixtures of cultured green algae and natural seston. Clones of different cladoceran species were exposed either to seston from Camorim reservoir sampled in different seasons or to a C. raciborskii strain (CYLCAM-2) isolated from the reservoir. In short-term assays, cladocerans were exposed to either 100% seston or mixtures of 50% seston added to green algae (200 μg C L−1), and their survivorship and somatic growth were measured for 4 days. In life table assays, neonates were exposed to the same seston treatments over 14 days and age at first reproduction, survivorship, fecundity, total offspring, and the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) were assessed. In general, seston negatively affected cladoceran survivorship and fitness (r), but this response was seasonally and species specific. Stronger effects of CYLCAM-2 than those caused by seston on survivorship, somatic growth, and r were found for all cladoceran species, especially when the proportion of CYLCAM-2 was higher than 50% in relation to green algae in a fixed total food concentration. Our results suggest that both nutritional (C/P and morphology) and toxicity factors can act to impair cladoceran fitness and help explain the absence of cladocerans in Camorim reservoir.
[en] The phytoplankton of Himreen reservoir was studied during Feb. 1996 to Jan 1997. A total of 98 algal species were identified, dominated by diatoms (69 apices), followed by greens (15 species), blue green algae (10 species). Diatoms was the dominants species in cell number: Navicula cryptocephala, Nitzschia palee, Cymbella affinis, and Fragillaria ulna. The number of species were difference and showed irregular seasonal variations in the studied stations.(Author)
[en] Phytoplankton are key components of ecosystems. Their growth is deeply influenced by temperature. In a context of global change, it is important to precisely estimate the impact of temperature on these organisms at different spatial and temporal scales. Here, we review the existing deterministic models used to represent the effect of temperature on microbial growth that can be applied to phytoplankton. We first describe and provide a brief mathematical analysis of the models used in constant conditions to reproduce the thermal growth curve. We present the mechanistic assumptions concerning the effect of temperature on the cell growth and mortality, and discuss their limits. The coupling effect of temperature and other environmental factors such as light are then shown. Finally, we introduce the models taking into account the acclimation needed to thrive with temperature variations. The need for new thermal models, coupled with experimental validation, is argued.
[en] We examined the effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) on net phosphorus (P) flux into phytoplankton communities in two boreal lakes at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Canada. We manipulated P available to and irradiance received by phytoplankton during four different three-day incubations of dilution bioassays. Net P flux was estimated by measuring the accumulation of particulate P (that retained on glass fiber filters) over the incubation period. No effects of UVR on net P flux were found at ambient P levels in any of the experiments. At the highest levels of P addition, less particulate phosphorus (PP) accumulated in both the minus-UVB (∼15-40%; photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) + UVA) and full-sunlight (∼25-45%; PAR + UVA + UVB) exposed phytoplankton compared with those that received PAR only. Neither chlorophyll- nor carbon-specific net P flux was affected by UVR exposure at ambient P levels. However, at the highest levels of P enrichment, chlorophyll-specific net P flux increased in response to UVR in both lakes, whereas carbon-specific net P flux declined in one of the lakes and was unaffected by UV exposure in the second lake. Our results indicate that UVR can affect total PP accumulation in enriched systems, but not at ambient P levels, and that UVR has a weak and variable effect on biomass-specific P uptake in phytoplankton under enriched conditions. (author)
[en] Highlights: • Autotrophic picoplankton was analyzed with CHEMTAX and flow cytometry. • The study covers area of the West-Estonian Archipelago Sea (Baltic Sea). • Picoplankton is a significant primary producer in eutrophic coastal areas. • Picoeukaryotes play an important role in the coastal areas. • The spatial variability of picoplankton can be considerable even in small regions. Autotrophic picoplankton (0.2–2 μm) can be a significant contributor to primary production and hence play an important role in carbon flow. The phytoplankton community structure in the Baltic Sea is very region specific and the understanding of the composition and dynamics of pico-size phytoplankton is generally poor. The main objective of this study was to determine the contribution of picoeukaryotic algae and their taxonomic composition in late summer phytoplankton community of the West-Estonian Archipelago Sea. We found that about 20% of total chlorophyll a (Chl a) in this area belongs to autotrophic picoplankton. With increasing total Chl a, the Chl a of autotrophic picoplankton increased while its contribution in total Chl a decreased. Picoeukaryotes play an important role in the coastal area of the Baltic Sea where they constituted around 50% of the total autotrophic picoplankton biomass. The most abundant groups of picoeukaryotic algae were cryptophytes (16%), chlorophytes (13%) and diatoms (9%). Picocyanobacteria were clearly dominated by phycoerythrin containing Synechococcus. The parallel use of different assessment methods (CHEMTAX and flow cytometry) revealed the share of eukaryotic and prokaryotic part of autotrophic picoplankton.
[en] The Tropical Atlantic is facing a massive proliferation of Sargassum since 2011, with severe environmental and socioeconomic impacts. As a contribution to this proliferation, an increase in nutrient inputs from the tropical rivers, in response to climate and land use changes or increasing urbanization, has been often suggested and widely reported in the scientific and public literature. Here we discuss whether changes in river nutrient inputs could contribute to Sargassum proliferation in the recent years or drive its seasonal cycle. Using long-term in situ and satellite measurements of discharge, dissolved and particulate nutrients of the three world largest rivers (Amazon, Orinoco, Congo), we do not find clear evidences that nutrient fluxes may have massively increased over the last 15 years. Moreover, focusing on year 2017, we estimate that along the year only 10% of the Sargassum biomass occurred in regions under river plume influence. While deforestation and pollution are a reality of great concern, our results corroborate recent findings that hydrological changes are not the first order drivers of Sargassum proliferation. Besides, satellite observations suggest that the major Atlantic river plumes suffered a decrease of phytoplankton biomass in the last two decades. Reconciling these observations requires a better understanding of the nutrient sources that sustain Sargassum and phytoplankton growth in the region. (letter)
[en] This study continues investigations into the development dynamics of phytoplankton and hydrochemical and meteorological factors over a periods of 26 years in the cooling pond of the Mayak Production Association in the Kyzyl-Trash Lake. The aim is to evaluate the long-term oscillations in phytoplankton owing to changes in hydrochemical and meteorological factors. 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab
[en] The purpose of this study was to determine the lethal and sublethal effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on natural estuarine phytoplankton communities. Bioassays were used in experimental treatments with final concentrations of 5 to 1000 μg tylosin l−1. Maximum percent inhibition ranged from 57 to 85% at concentrations of 200–400 μg tylosin l−1. Half maximum inhibition concentrations of tylosin were ca. 5x lower for small phytoplankton (<20 μm) relative to larger phytoplankton (>20 μm) and suggests that small phytoplankton are more sensitive to tylosin exposure. Sublethal effects occurred at concentrations as low as 5 μg tylosin l−1. Environmental concentrations of tylosin (e.g., 0.2–3 μg l−1) may have a significant sublethal effect that alters the size structure and composition of phytoplankton communities. The results of this study highlight the potential importance of cell size on toxicity responses of estuarine phytoplankton. - Highlights: • This study determined the lethal and sublethal effects of the antimicrobial tylosin on natural estuarine phytoplankton communities. • Half maximum inhibition concentrations of tylosin were ca. 5x lower for small phytoplankton (<20 μm) relative to larger phytoplankton (>20 μm). • Environmental concentrations of tylosin may have a significant sublethal effect that alters the size structure and composition of phytoplankton communities. • The results of this study highlight the potential importance of cell size on toxicity responses of estuarine phytoplankton. - The two major findings of the research were that there appears to be a size-selective effect of tylosin on natural estuarine phytoplankton and that there was a sublethal effect of tylosin at concentrations approaching those documented for marine environments.
[en] Microalgae represent an important nutritional source for diverse organisms, therefore, their nutritional value, and more specifically, total lipid and fatty acid contents, must be considered. This study evaluated the nutritional contents and potential growth under controlled conditions of Nitzschia sp. and Chaetoceros sp. Tropical microalgae, isolated from the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica. In both strains, the nutritional composition and the fatty acid profile were evaluated in exponential and stationary phases. With regards to fatty acids, Nitzschia sp. had more Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA) in both the exponential (32.80%) and stationary (27.20%) phases. The results in growth rate, production and biochemical composition indicated two tropical microalgae strains suitable for cultivation under controlled conditions. The studies of the phytoplankton in this geographical area is highly relevant because of its importance in the primary production of nutrients and the importance of finding sources of fatty acids such as the EPA.
[es]Las microalgas representan una fuente alimenticia importante para diversos organismos, por lo que su valor nutricional debe ser considerado, especialmente su contenido de lípidos totales y el perfil de ácidos grasos. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el crecimiento y determinar la composición bioquímica de dos cepas de microalgas tropicales aisladas de la costa del Pacífico Central de Costa Rica, Nitzschia sp. y Chaetoceros sp. En ambas se evaluó la composición nutricional y perfil de ácidos grasos en fase exponencial y estacionaria. Nitzschia sp. tuvo mayor cantidad de ácido eicosapentanoico (EPA) en ambas fases (32.80% y 27.20%, respectivamente). Los resultados en tasa de crecimiento, producción y composición bioquímica, presentan dos cepas de microalgas tropicales aptas para su cultivo en condiciones controladas. Estudiar el fitoplancton de esta zona es muy relevante debido a su importancia en la producción primaria y en la búsqueda de fuentes de ácidos grasos como el EPA.