Results 1 - 10 of 2053
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[en] We present a semi-analytic model atmosphere for close-in exoplanets that captures the essential physics of phase curves: orbital and viewing geometry, advection, and re-radiation. We calibrate the model with the well-characterized transiting planet, HD 189733b, then compute light curves for seven of the most eccentric transiting planets: Gl 436b, HAT-P-2b, HAT-P-11b, HD 17156b, HD 80606b, WASP-17b, and XO-3b. We present phase variations for a variety of different radiative times and wind speeds. In the limit of instant re-radiation, the light-curve morphology is entirely dictated by the planet's eccentricity and argument of pericenter: the light curve maximum leads or trails the eclipse depending on whether the planet is receding from or approaching the star at superior conjunction, respectively. For a planet with non-zero radiative timescales, the phase peak occurs early for super-rotating winds, and late for sub-rotating winds. We find that for a circular orbit, the timing of the phase variation maximum with respect to superior conjunction indicates the direction of the dominant winds, but cannot break the degeneracy between wind speed and radiative time. For circular planets the phase minimum occurs half an orbit away from the phase maximum-despite the fact that the coolest longitudes are always near the dawn terminator-and therefore does not convey any additional information. In general, increasing the advective frequency or the radiative time has the effect of reducing the peak-to-trough amplitude of phase variations, but there are interesting exceptions to these trends. Lastly, eccentric planets with orbital periods significantly longer than their radiative time exhibit 'ringing', whereby the hot spot generated at periastron rotates in and out of view. The existence of ringing makes it possible to directly measure the wind speed (the frequency of the ringing) and the radiative time constant (the damping of the ringing).
[en] The fundamentals of radiation calculations in planetary atmospheres have been known for a long time, but the practical problems of calculating radiation over a broad spectral range both efficiently and accurately remain an area of active research. The Goody et al. paper of 1989 established a milestone in that long effort. Goody et al. highlighted attempts to formulate the problem in terms of a few absorption coefficients that could represent typically tens of thousands of coefficients in a rigorous line-by-line calculation. Here we provide a brief background, point out that the correlated-k method is a special case of a broader spectral mapping concept, and mention some new ideas that have emerged recently.
[en] The Uranus planet system described popularly, basic characteristics of the planet and its satellites are presented. Particular attention is paid to dust rings of the Uranus discovered in 1977. The models of the planet formation and structure, satellites and rings are presented in brief
[en] The concrete representation of the quadratic form of the second partial derivatives for the planetary hydrodynamics equation is obtained; the main symmetry properties of matrix form of these equations are investigated. It is shown that the reverence system in which obtained quadratic form may by diagonalized is not spherical one. (author)
[en] Understanding the dynamics and kinematics of outflowing atmospheres of hot and warm exoplanets is crucial to understanding the origins and evolutionary history of the exoplanets near the evaporation desert. Recently, ground-based measurements of the meta-stable helium atom’s resonant absorption at 10830 Å has become a powerful probe of the base environment which is driving the outflow of exoplanet atmospheres. We report evidence for the He i 10830 Å in absorption (equivalent width ∼0.012 ± 0.002 Å) in the exosphere of a warm Neptune orbiting the M-dwarf GJ 3470, during three transits using the Habitable Zone Planet Finder near-infrared spectrograph. This marks the first reported evidence for He i 10830 Å atmospheric absorption for a planet orbiting an M-dwarf. Our detected absorption is broad and its blueshifted wing extends to −36 km s−1, the largest reported in the literature to date. We modeled the state of helium atoms in the exosphere of GJ3470b based on assumptions on the UV and X-ray flux of GJ 3470, and found our measurement of flux-weighted column density of meta-stable state helium , derived from our transit observations, to be consistent with the model, within its uncertainties. The methodology developed here will be useful to study and constrain the atmospheric outflow models of other exoplanets like GJ 3470b, which are near the edge of the evaporation desert.
[en] The planet GJ 1214b is the second known super-Earth with a measured mass and radius. Orbiting a quiet M star, it receives considerably less mass-loss driving X-ray and UV radiation than CoRoT-7b, so that the interior may be quite dissimilar in composition, including the possibility of a large fraction of water. We model the interior of GJ 1214b assuming a two-layer (envelope+rock core) structure where the envelope material is either H/He, pure water, or a mixture of H/He and H2O. Within this framework, we perform models of the thermal evolution and contraction of the planet. We discuss possible compositions that are consistent with Mp = 6.55 M+, Rp = 2.678 R+, an age τ = 3-10 Gyr, and the irradiation level of the atmosphere. These conditions require that if water exists in the interior, it must remain in a fluid state, with important consequences for magnetic field generation. These conditions also require the atmosphere to have a deep isothermal region extending down to 80-800 bar, depending on composition. Our results bolster the suggestion of a metal-enriched H/He atmosphere for the planet, as we find water-world models that lack an H/He atmosphere to require an implausibly large water-to-rock ratio of more than 6:1. We instead favor an H/He/H2O envelope with high water mass fraction (∼0.5-0.85), similar to recent models of the deep envelope of Uranus and Neptune. Even with these high water mass fractions in the H/He envelope, generally the bulk composition of the planet can have subsolar water:rock ratios. Dry, water-enriched, and pure water envelope models differ to an observationally significant level in their tidal Love numbers k2 of, respectively, ∼0.018, ∼0.15, and ∼0.7.
[en] A new study of 204 drawings and photographs of Venus made in 1892-1977 shows that the dark ultraviolet markings have a retrograde rotation with a synodic statistical period of 3.995 25 +- 0.000 01 days. With this period, 70% of the observed markings are in the same hemisphere; this accumulation was confirmed by Mariner 10
[fr]Une nouvelle analyse de 204 documents echelonnes sur une periode de 85 ans confirme que la rotation synodique des formations sombres visibles en lumiere ultraviolette s'effectue dans le sens retrograde avec une periode statistique de 3,995 25 +- 0,000 01 jours. Avec cette periode 70% des formations observees se regroupent dans le meme hemisphere selon l'accumulation mise en evidence par Mariner 10