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[en] US Department of Energy (DOE) emergency planners are faced with a difficult question. Do DOE facilities have adequate emergency preparedness programs? The question would be more easily answered if emergency managers could go to a central guidance document that specifies all areas of concern (procedures look like this, exercises are conducted like this, etc.). However, even if such a document did exist, it would not be sufficient to ensure that programs were effectively implemented. Professionals with the required training and experience are needed to interpret complex guidance and develop effective DOE facility-specific emergency preparedness programs. An increased emphasis on the professional development of DOE and contractor emergency planners is needed. The author must strengthen the professional competence of emergency planners so they can interpret standards and implement effective programs that address the complex hazards of each facility and the many and varied interests of the DOE, contractor management, unions, local governments, the media and special interest groups
[en] During the TMI event the operators had some difficulties to accurately diagnose the accident, causing delay to recover the plant, and allowing the conditions to deteriorate. Further analysis concluded that the plant emergency procedures were incomplete, and did not cover the possibility of multiple and simultaneous failures. This paper covers a new approach for developing emergency procedures to create a new general strategy by providing valid instructions for all kinds of possible incidents in a nuclear power plant. (author)
[pt]Durante o acidente na Usina de Three Mile Island, os operadores tiveram dificuldade para diagnosticar com precisao o evento, retardando as acoes de recuperacao da usina, e ocasionamento o agravamento da situacao. Analise posterior conclui que os procedimentos de emergencia utilizados se mostraram incompletos, nao contemplando a possibilidade de multiplas ocorrencias simultaneas. Este texto aborda uma nova sistematica de desenvolvimento de procedimentos de emergencia, de modo a produzir estrategias de carater geral, e que fornecam instrucoes validas para os tipos de incidentes possiveis em uma usina nuclear. (autor)
[en] Secretary of Energy Steven Chu gave the keynote address at the 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum. In his talk, Secretary Chu highlighted the need to 'unleash America's science and research community' to achieve energy breakthroughs. The 2011 EFRC Summit and Forum brought together the EFRC community and science and policy leaders from universities, national laboratories, industry and government to discuss 'Science for our Nation's Energy Future.' In August 2009, the Office of Science established 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers. The EFRCs are collaborative research efforts intended to accelerate high-risk, high-reward fundamental research, the scientific basis for transformative energy technologies of the future. These Centers involve universities, national laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit firms, singly or in partnerships, selected by scientific peer review. They are funded at $2 to $5 million per year for a total planned DOE commitment of $777 million over the initial five-year award period, pending Congressional appropriations. These integrated, multi-investigator Centers are conducting fundamental research focusing on one or more of several 'grand challenges' and use-inspired 'basic research needs' recently identified in major strategic planning efforts by the scientific community. The purpose of the EFRCs is to integrate the talents and expertise of leading scientists in a setting designed to accelerate research that transforms the future of energy and the environment.
[en] Most exercises on nuclear security have, up to now, be devoted to the accident phase of the installation and the reflex protection measures during the first hours. The post accidental phase, which deals with the characterization of the contaminated zones and the management of the economic and social life, has been much less tested in exercises. Three recent exercises performed in France bring the following propositions to work out an off site exercise policy: - to benefit from the analysis of the non nuclear accidents - to select the technical and professional aspects of the off site management and to give them priority in the orientation of the exercises or the manoeuvres - to involve representatives of local population - to let the initiative to local Prefect, to enhance the value of the local exercises by specialized services, to accumulate these experiences at a national level
[en] Table top exercises are widely applied in training for emergency preparedness and have long been a feature of Courses on Planning for Nuclear Emergencies. Experience of a large number of table top exercises is used to provide a classification of the types of exercise indicating the application and the disadvantages. The use of workshops is considered to be complementary rather than an alternative to teaching methods available from table top exercises. (author)
[en] In 2008, the IAEA published Nuclear Security Culture guidelines to serve as a tool for countries on building an effective nuclear security culture. Although the guidelines provide an adequate apparatus to help establish nuclear security culture at facilities, some limitations to them need to be carefully addressed. Here, by using empirical data, possible pitfalls on the way to achieving strong nuclear security culture are examined. In particular, those identified deal with: 1) Recognition of the credibility of the threat to nuclear facilities and nuclear materials in use, storage and in transport. 2) Appreciation of the influence of national cultural differences and subcultures when building nuclear security culture. It is believed that taking these factors into account and correcting shortcomings will not require substantial financial resources. Customising approaches to the application of nuclear security culture concept will help fill the gaps where they exist.
[en] Emergency exercises for each NPP are required on a regular basis by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate. The purpose of such exercises is to train the NPP staff and the on-site emergency organization in the application of the emergency procedures and the cooperation with off-site emergency teams and public authorities. The paper discusses the purpose of the emergency exercises and experiences made especially with bilateral exercises. The responsibilities for the preparation and execution of the different emergency exercises in Switzerland are explained
[en] The practice followed in planning, preparing and conducting offsite nuclear emergency exercises in the Province of Ontario, Canada, is described. In addition, some of the main issues that arise during this process are discussed, as well as Canadian experience in dealing with them. The planning process starts with basic decisions on the aim, scope and duration of the exercise. It proceeds through selection of the exercise objectives and participants, the development of scenarios and incident lists culminating in a master scenario and a master incident list, and finally, the production of control inputs. Preparations include the setting up of a planning organization, making arrangements for exercise control and evaluation, and the required logistics. Some aspects of international exercises are also covered, based upon experience with joint exercises with the U.S.A
[en] Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, the prime contractor for Idaho National Laboratory (INL), provides this Emergency Readiness Assurance Plan (ERAP) for Fiscal Year 2016 in accordance with DOE O 151.1C, “Comprehensive Emergency Management System.” The ERAP documents the readiness of the INL Emergency Management Program using emergency response planning and preparedness activities as the basis. It describes emergency response planning and preparedness activities, and where applicable, summarizes and/or provides supporting information in tabular form for easy access to data. The ERAP also provides budget, personnel, and planning forecasts for Fiscal Year 2017. Specifically, the ERAP assures the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office that stated emergency capabilities at INL are sufficient to implement PLN 114, “INL Emergency Plan/RCRA Contingency Plan.”