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[en] Shoot tips of Aloe vera L were excised and inoculated in basal and modified MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) medium. Growth regulators and growth factors were supplemented to the basal medium. Development of explants, initiation of callus and multiplication of shoots in culture were recorded.
[en] When the radioimmunoassay developed for abscisic acid (ABA) estimation was applied to a plant extract, results appeared overestimated. Purification by thin-layer chromatography established that ABA in its free and alkali-hydrolysable forms constituted only a small part of the immunoreactive material. The major source of the cross-reactivity was a group of polar metabolites, poorly soluble in ether and well recovered by ethyl acetate and butanol. These immunoreactive metabolites were compared with polar metabolites already described in experiments wher e [14C]ABA was fed to plant tissue, particularly with recently identified glucosides of ABA and dihydrophaseic acid
[en] Crown sections of pineapple were inoculated aseptically in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with varying levels of benzyl adenine (BA) in combination with napthalene acetic acid (NAA). Callus was induced from crown sections that was grown in MS with 0 ppm BA + 2 ppm NAA, 2 ppm BA + 6 ppm NAA. These calli when grown continuously in the same medium developed profusely into shoots. Callus and shoots developed profusely at medium containing 2 ppm BA + 2 ppm NAA. Calli that were further sub-cultured in MS with 2 ppm BA + 2 ppm NAA produced multiple shoots. Calli and shoots that were further sub-cultured in 0 to 4 ppm BA to 4 to 6 ppm NAA formed roots. Results showed that complete plantlets were produced from crown sections of pineapple variety Queen in MS medium supplemented with the different treatment combinations of BA and NAA. (Author). 9 refs.; 1 fig
[en] Besides other factors resistance and susceptibility is the outcome of biochemical processes such as activities of defense-related enzymes. So in this study, Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and Peroxidase activity of resistant (Inqilab-91) and susceptible (Kirin-95) wheat cultivars were determined through spectrophotometer to address the biochemical aspect related to the disease after 8 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours of leaf rust inoculation. The results have shown that these enzymes were present in both the resistant and susceptible cultivars but the activity was more pronounced in the resistant one. The effect of PAL and peroxidase activity was also investigated among inoculated and uninoculated plants within the same cultivar. The activity of both PAL and peroxidase were more significant in inoculated ones. The results have shown that the after 72 hours of inoculation Inqilab-91 had more PAL activity i.e., 5.47 IU/ml/min than in Kirin-95 i.e., 2.08 IU/ml/min at 270 nm. While peroxidase activity in Inqilab-91 was 6.41 IU/ml/min and in Kirin-95, 3.66 IU/ml/min after 72 hours of inoculation, observed under 470 nm wavelength. Increase in one's activity increases the other enzyme's activity. The activity was more prominent after 72 hours of infection as pathogen had successfully established itself in the host plant tissue. The activities of these enzymes act as plants active defense mechanism against the attack of pathogen. (author)
[en] The Oryctes nudivirus (OrNV) or previously known as Oryctes baculovirus is a biocontrol agent for rhinoceros beetle, Oryctes rhinoceros. The replication of three types of OrNV, the types A, B, and C in the insect cell line DSIR-HA-1179 was studied. The cells were grown in PS100 media containing 10 % fetal bovine serum. The signs of infection in cells by all types of OrNV were clearly seen at 10 to 14 days after treatment (DAT). The infected cells experienced cytopathic effects (CPE) involving formation of high number of vesicle or globule like-structures around the cells. The density of viable cells in flasks inoculated by the nudivirus decreased over time. At 16 DAT, the viable cell density in flasks inoculated with OrNV types A, B, and C was 1.49 x 10"5, 0.29 x 10"5, and 4.78 x 10"5 cells ml"-"1 respectively, significantly lower (P<0.05) compared to control flask of 7.98 x 10"5 cells ml"-"1. Based on the Tissue Culture Infectious Dose 50 % (TCID_5_0), it was found that the OrNV type B was more virulent than the OrNV types A and C as it produced high infectious virus particles. The TCID_5_0 values for the OrNV types A and C were 3.00 x 10"7 infectious unit (IU ml"-"1) and 8.03 x 10"5 IU ml"-"1 as compared to type B which was 7.09 x 10"7 IU ml"-"1. The PCR analysis showed that all types of OrNV had successfully replicated in the cells as early as 4 DAT. Pathogenicity study on neonates using cells-propagated OrNV has again showed that the OrNV type B was more pathogenic than the other types of OrNV. The LT_5_0 value for the OrNV type B was 33.47 days, shorter than the OrNV type A (49.35 days) and the OrNV type C (48.58 days). The DNA profiles of OrNV extracted from dead infected neonates in the bioassay were the same as those from infected gut tissues collected from field population. Thus, it is suggested that the Malaysian OrNV types A, B and C were successfully produced in cell line DSIR-HA-1179. (author)
[en] Monomethylmercury (MeHg) is one of the most toxic and the most commonly occurring organomercury compound and the wetlands are one of the main areas of generation of this Hg form. Concretely, it is in the macrophyte root system where better conditions are given for its generation. However, the knowledge of absorption and subsequent distribution of mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury in aquatic plants is still limited. Mercury mining district such as Almadén (Ciudad Real, Spain) is a natural laboratory where different rivers flow and the species Typha domingensis Pers. is a common macrophyte which grows in their riverbanks. The aim of the present work is to apply a recently developed method specially designed to analyze Hg species in plant tissues to the different fractions of T. domingensis under real field conditions and to study the accumulation and distribution of Hg species (inorganic Hg and MeHg) within the plant. The results proved that whatever Hg species has preference to be accumulated in the belowground fractions and demonstrated a high efficiency in the accumulation of MeHg.
[en] Bio materials known as natural materials or synthetic materials used in medical devices to safely interact with biological system. The important feature for bio materials is biocompatible and biodegradation with the biological environment of the body without causing any harm or toxins in the body.