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[en] In this paper, a set of simple predictive criteria, each optimized for a given type of disruption, is explored. Disruptions that occurred in the years from 2005 to 2009 in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak are classified into several types in a first step. Then, discriminant analysis is used as the main approach to the disruption prediction and a log-linear discriminant function, constructed with five global plasma parameters that have been selected from an initial group of ten variables, is derived for the edge cooling disruptions. The function is tested off-line over 308 discharges and is shown to work reliably. It describes a clear dependence of the disruption boundary on the plasma parameters.
[en] Recently, a numerical work analyzed the effect of the separatrix shape on stochasticity onset on a two-wave Hamiltonian system and more particularly the dependence of the stochasticity threshold on the separatrix angle at the hyperbolic fixed point. The conclusion of this work was that the flattering of this angle has a very significant effect in the reduction of the stochasticity threshold. That means that a bifurcation from hyperbolicity to parabolicity increases the chaotic transport. Using this result, the authors proposed a scenario to the unresolved problem of internal disruptions in tokamaks, relating the catastrophic behavior observed during those disruptions to the flattening of the separatrix angle at the hyperbolic fixed point. (authors)
[en] An electromagnetic analysis is performed on different first wall designs for the ITER device. The electromagnetic forces and torques present due to a plasma disruption event are calculated and compared for the different designs.
[en] A survey has been carried out into the causes of all 2309 disruptions over the last decade of JET operations. The aim of this survey was to obtain a complete picture of all possible disruption causes, in order to devise better strategies to prevent or mitigate their impact. The analysis allows the effort to avoid or prevent JET disruptions to be more efficient and effective. As expected, a highly complex pattern of chain of events that led to disruptions emerged. It was found that the majority of disruptions had a technical root cause, for example due to control errors, or operator mistakes. These bring a random, non-physics, factor into the occurrence of disruptions and the disruption rate or disruptivity of a scenario may depend more on technical performance than on physics stability issues. The main root cause of JET disruptions was nevertheless due to neo-classical tearing modes that locked, closely followed in second place by disruptions due to human error. The development of more robust operational scenarios has reduced the JET disruption rate over the last decade from about 15% to below 4%. A fraction of all disruptions was caused by very fast, precursorless unpredictable events. The occurrence of these disruptions may set a lower limit of 0.4% to the disruption rate of JET. If one considers on top of that human error and all unforeseen failures of heating or control systems this lower limit may rise to 1.0% or 1.6%, respectively.
[en] The Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) has a substantial number of fast diagnostics, especially for electrons, as part of its mission for pulsed, high-power electron cyclotron heating. As part of its contribution to ITER R ampersand D, these diagnostics are being used to characterize disruptions in MTX. This report is the first of two, with the second planned for submittal in September 1990, at the end of the ITER conceptual design activity. Here, we analyze the characteristics of disruptions during normal operation of MTX, discuss some new data pertaining to the ''Granetz limit,'' and describe preliminary data on ramped density shorts which will be used for fast measurements on density limit disruptions. The final report will discuss measurements using the fast diagnostics to characterize the disruption
[en] According to recent design review results, the original reference vacuum vessel (VV) design was selected with a number of modifications including 3D shaping of the outboard inner shell. The VV load conditions were updated based on reviews of the plasma disruption and vertical displacement event (VDE) database. The lower port gussets have been reinforced based on structural analysis results, including non-linear buckling. Design of in-vessel coils for the mitigation of edge localized modes (ELM) and plasma vertical stabilization (VS) has progressed. Design of the in-wall-shielding (IWS) has progressed in details. The detailed layout of ferritic steel plates and borated steel plates is optimized based on the toroidal field ripple analysis. The procurement arrangements (PAs) for the VV including ports and IWS have been prepared or signed. Final design reviews were carried out to check readiness for the PA signature. The procedure for licensing the ITER VV according to the French Order on Nuclear Pressure Equipment (ESPN) has started and conformity assessment is being performed by an Agreed Notified Body (ANB). A VV design description document, VV load specification document, hazard and stress analysis reports and particular material appraisal were submitted according to the guideline and RCC-MR requirements.
[en] This paper describes the general characteristics of disruption halo currents in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557). The commonly observed types of vertical motion and resulting halo current patterns are described, and it is shown that plasma discharges developing between components can facilitate halo current flow. The halo current fractions and toroidal peaking factors at various locations in the device are presented. The maximum product of these two metrics for localized halo current measurements is always significantly less than the worst-case expectations from conventional aspect ratio tokamaks (which are typically written in terms of the total halo current). The halo current fraction and impulse is often largest in cases with the fastest plasma current quenches and highest quench rates. The effective duration of the halo current pulse is comparable to or shorter than the plasma current quench time. The largest halo currents have tended to occur in lower β and lower elongation plasmas. The sign of the poloidal halo current is reversed when the toroidal field direction is reversed. (paper)
[en] The TEXT/(TEXT-U) tokamak, formerly built and operated by the University of Texas at Austin in USA, was dismantled and shipped to China in 2004, and renamed as the Joint TEXT (J-TEXT) tokamak. The reconstruction work, which included reassembly of the machine and development of peripheral devices, was completed in the spring of 2007. Consequently, the first plasma was obtained at the end of 2007. At present, a typical J-TEXT ohmic discharge can produce a plasma with flattop current up to 220 kA and lasting for 300 ms, line-averaged density above 2 x 1019 m-3, and an electron temperature of about 800 eV, with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.2 T. A number of diagnostic devices used to facilitate the routine operation and experimental scenarios were developed on the J-TEXT tokamak. Hence, the measurements of the electrostatic fluctuations in the edge region and conditional analysis of the intermittent burst events near the last closed flux surface were undertaken. The observation and simple analysis of MHD activity and disruption events were also performed. The preliminary experimental results and the future research plan for the J-TEXT are described in detail.