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[en] The influence of pulsed electric fields (PEF) treatment on freeze-drying forpotato and strawberry tissues was investigated. Samples were pre-treated by PEF (E=400 V cm-1) for different treatment times. Freeze-drying was carried out at -17°C and 18.4 Pa or 30 Pa for potato and strawberry tissues, respectively.The effects of PEF pre-treatment was compared with intact samples. The drying time was reduced by 35% for potato and 30% for strawberry. The sample rehydration capacity and the electrolytes released during the rehydration were higher for pre-treated samples. Strawberries texture was characterized by the hardness, the cohesiveness and the springiness. (Author)
[en] Highlights: • Many new books for ultramicroscopists are described. • A new Fowler. • Zeiss and Abbe. • The contents of many conference proceedings are recapitulated. - Abstract: Recent and not quite so recent books and conference proceedings on electron microscopy and related topics are surveyed. A few books on very different subjects are included to lighten the dough.
[en] A commercial potato irradiation plant was established in 1973 at Shihoro in Hokkaido, Japan, with a capacity of about 10,000 tons per month using large baskets containing 1.5 tons of potatoes. For twelve seasons potatoes have been irradiated and marketed by the plant. The paper will discuss the experience with the Shihoro potato irradiator from the technical and economic viewpoints. From the technical viewpoint, the following are the main factors that have contributed to the success of potato irradiation. First, the Japanese government initiated research on food irradiation as a national project and provided financial support. Second, the presence of the Shihoro Agricultural Cooperative Association which handles a large amount of potatoes; and third, the mock-up test for the conceptual design of irradiation was conducted using large baskets for storage and transportation. The cost of the irradiation plant was about 389 million yen, of which 253 million yen was provided by the government. The irradiation plant processes about 15,000 tons of potatoes a year and the costs are 2,000 to 4,500 yen per ton. This accounts for 2 to 3% of the potato price and is within the range of commercial feasibility. The irradiated potatoes effectively controlled the market price and is within the range of commercial feasibility. The irradiated potatoes effectively controlled the market price fluctuations during the off-season
[en] First, the countries which approve irradiated foods as those for human and the kind of approved foods were mentioned. Description was also made of the estimation of wholesomeness of irradiated foods, which was decided in 1969 by the expert committee composed of FAO, IAEA, and WHO. A long-term experiment on the toxicity including carcinogenesis of irradiated potatoes, which was carried out by the author, was stated. Experiments on wholesomeness of irradiated foods which were made in various countries were introduced, and their methods were considered. Lastly, the author's opinions were stated as follows: (a) it is possible to feed experimental animals with foods which contain irradiated or non-irradiated foods, and (b) in order to investigate genetic wholesomeness of irradiated foods, in vivo examination using mammals must be done mainly, because it offers informations useful to know the effects of irradiated foods on human body. (Tsunoda, M.)
[en] The study was performed in an inceptisol at the ''San Jorge'' experimental station (altitude 2.900 m), Bogota, Colombia. The influence of phosphate and the application of split doses of nitrogen on the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency of a potato crop. (Solanum tuberosum, L.) cv Tequendama, was evaluated. The phosphate was applied at levels of 100, 150 and 200 Kg P2O5 ha-1 in the form of triple super phosphate. The nitrogen (100 Kg N. ha-1) was applied in split doses at seeding and 60 days after emergence (DAE) in the following proportions: 1/3: 2/3 or 1/2. The N source used was Urea labelled with 1.5 atom % 15N excess. The results showed that: a) The maximum tuber yield (41 t.ha-1) was experience with 100 Kg P2O5Ha-1 and this was significantly higher than a zero phosphate control (24t. ha-1) even though the soluble soil phosphorus (Bray II) was high. b) The phosphate favoured the productivity of the crop and increased the N fertilizer use efficiency (% FUE) from 28 to 51%.c). The different splitting of the N fertilizer application had no detectable effect on yield % FUE. d) The tubers represented 76% of the total dry matter and contained 63% of the total nitrogen and fertilizer N accumulated by the crop
[en] The effect of potato cultiver, temperature and gamma rays on the natural characteristics of stored varieties of potato tuber (Desiree, Diamont and Romano) were carried out at cold storage Unit /Debt. of Horticulture/College of Agric, Univ. of Baghdad during spring season of 2002. The gamma does were (0,80, 120 and 160) Gray while the storage temperatures were 5 and 15 0C. the results of this study illustrated that the Romano tubers were firmer than those tubers of the other two cultivers Diamont and Desiree at the end of reconditioning period. Moreover, the Romano cultiver showed lowest percent of losses in weight, sprouting and microbial decay at the end of reconditioning period in comparison with other two cultivers. Furthermore, storage at 5 0C decreased the percentage of losses in weight, microbail decay and sprouting during storage period. Finally the results revealed that the treatment with gamma rays did not effect any of the natural characteristics studied of the three varieties of potato tubers (Firmer, Weight loss, Sprouting and microbial decay).