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[en] Edwards syndrome is the second most common trisomy syndrome occurring in 0.3/1,000 births. The prenatal diagnosis of this trisomy may be suspected in the routine ultrasound exam of the pregnancy by means of the recognition of a constellation of findings: fetal structural anomalies, intrauterine growth retardation (CIR) and umbilical cord or amniotic fluid volume abnormalities. The diagnosis is then confirmed by chromosome analysis of either amniotic fluid or fetal blood or tissue. We present six cases of Edwards syndrome suspected by fetal ultrasonography exam, all of them confirmed by karyotype, describing the major sonographic findings. (Author) 15 refs
[en] To evaluate the sonographic features and appearance time of the physiologic midgut herniation early in pregnancy. Sonograms of 87 features ranging from 7 to 13 weeks were obtained over a 2-month period. The presence or absence, the size and echogenecity of the physiologic midgut herniation were evaluate on each examination. Disappearance of the midgut herniation was confirmed on follow-up sonogram at 13-20 weeks, 3-12 weeks after the first sonogram. The results were analyzed in terms of appearance or disappearance time of midgut herniation. In all cases of physiologic midgut herination, an echogenic mass measuring 0.4-0.7 cm wa demonstrated within the base of the umbilical cord at its insertion into the fetal abdomen. This herniation was detected in 3/6 cases (50%) at 8 weeks, in 15/16 cases (94%) at 9 weeks, in 22/24 cases (92%) at 10 weeks and in 12/27 cases (44%) at 11 weeks gestation. None of the features studied at 7 weeks and 12 weeks had a midgut herniation. Sonographic findings of a 0.4-0.7 cm sized echogenic mass within the base of the umbilical cord which appears from 8 weeks to 12 weeks pregnancy represent physiologic midgut herniation in early pregnancy and should not be confused with pathologic ventral wall defected such as omphalocele or gastroschisis.
[en] The aim of the present article is to provide an important example for the application of relative topology in biology. The model presented allows one to trace development of an embryo from zygote until birth by using basic concepts in topology, namely relative subspaces, together with dynamical topology and folding. This leads to insight into the stage at which medication should be used to stop any abnormality during pregnancy.
[en] We report here a review of the current medical literature on pregnancy associated desmoids, including 10 cases of our own. The pertinent findings are that a large percentage of desmoids in females arise in and around pregnancy. Most occur in the abdominal muscles, particularly the right rectus abdominus, perhaps related to trauma from abdominal stretching and fetal movement. While these tumors may regress spontaneously after delivery most can be surgically resected with low recurrence rates even with R1 resections and this is clearly the treatment of choice. Subsequent pregnancies do not appear to result in recurrence in either FAP or non FAP patients. It is not clear from currently available data whether pregnancy associated desmoids are molecularly distinct from other desmoids
[en] Highlights: • Exosomes derived from the conceptuses acted on the endometrial epithelium. • Global protein analysis identified 596 exosomal proteins during peri-implantation. • Exosomes at pre-implantation up-regulated apoptosis-related genes in uterine cells. • Exosomes at post-implantation up-regulated adhesion molecule in uterine cells. Exosomes, extracellular vesicles, are present in uterine flushing fluids (UFs), which are involved in conceptus-endometrial interactions during peri-implantation periods. Despite several studies on intrauterine exosomes conducted, the roles conceptus and endometrial exosomes play during peri-implantation periods have not been well characterized. To investigate the effect of bovine intrauterine exosomes on conceptus implantation, exosomes isolated from bovine UFs during peri-implantation periods were subjected to global protein analysis. The analysis detected 596 exosomal proteins, including ruminants' pregnancy recognition factor IFNT, and 172 differentially expressed proteins with more than 1.5-fold changes in UFs on days 17, 20 and 22 pregnancy (day of conceptus implantation is initiated on days 19–19.5). Treatment of primary bovine endometrial epithelial cells with exosomes from day 17 UFs up-regulated the expression of apoptosis-related genes, and treatment with exosomes from day 20 and 22 UFs up-regulated the expression of adhesion molecule. Based on these findings, intrauterine exosomes should be considered as an essential constituent for successful implantation.
[en] Objectives: To compare the efficacy, safety and cost effectiveness of Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA) with dilatation and curettage (DNC) in the management of early pregnancy failure. Methods: One hundred patients of spontaneous abortion, incomplete or missed, with gestational age <12 weeks were included in the study. Using a Random Number Table, these patients were assigned to undergo either DNC or MVA. Results: The distribution of age, parity and gestational age was similar in both groups. The mean duration of procedure was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in DNC (8.98+-2.64 minutes) as compared to 5.88+-2.43 minutes in MVA. The duration of hospital stay was significantly lower (p<0.0001) in MVA group (3.48+-1.2 hours) as compared to 7.42+-1.93 minutes in DNC group. Similarly the cost of procedure was also significantly lower (p=0.0001) in MVA group (PKR 1410+-243.4) compared to PKR 3460+-908.24 in DNC group. Conclusion: MVA is as effective as conventional dilatation and curettage for treatment of early pregnancy failure while it causes less blood loss, is less time consuming, requires a shorter hospital stay and thus costs less. It does not require general anaesthesia and complication rate is less than dilatation and curettage. (author)
[en] A radioimmunoassay for alpha-foetoprotein (AFP) in dried blood spots is reported. The main technical characteristics (reproducibility, sensitivity, recovery of exogenous AFP added and AFP stability in dried blood) are evaluated. They indicate that this method is feasible and well adapted to AFP measurement during pregnancy. AFP determination in maternal serum allows early detection of at least 80% of neural tube defects. The use of dried blood spots as samples for AFP assay makes our method a possible mass screening test for these malformations, which occur with an incidence of 12 for 10,000
[fr]Nous avons mis au point une methode de dosage radio-immunologique de l'alpha-foetoproteine (AFP) dans l'eluat de sang seche sur papier filtre. L'evaluation des principales caracteristiques de cette methode (reproductibilite, exactitude, sensibilite) ainsi que l'etude de la conservation de l'alpha-foetoproteine en sang seche montrent que cette technique est fiable et bien adaptee a la mesure de l'AFP au cours de la grossesse. Le dosage de l'AFP serique maternelle permet la detection de plus de 80% des defauts de fermeture du tube neural avant la 20e semaine de grossesse. Compte tenu du type de prelevement qu'elle utilise, notre methode pourrait donc constituer un moyen simple de depistage systematique de ces malformations dont la frequence est d'environ 12 pour 10.000