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[en] Thus far, the few studies on the associations between perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and asthma in children have yielded inconsistent results. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether and to what extent prenatal PFASs exposure is associated with childhood asthmatic diseases. Eight PFASs were measured in cord blood drawn from 358 children in the Shanghai Allergy Birth Cohort, and a 5-year follow-up plan was completed. Asthma was diagnosed and reported by pediatric respiratory physicians via repeated symptoms (wheezing and coughing) and laboratory examination (Immunoglobulin E level test and skin prick test). A total of 26.6% and 17.4% subjects were diagnosed with wheezing and asthma, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression and piecewise linear regression were applied, and no association was found between PFASs and asthma or wheezing. However, cord serum PFOA, PFOS, and PFDA were positively correlated with serum total IgE in 5-year-old children as the level of the former beyond the turning point (4.37 ng/mL, 2.95 ng/mL, and 0.42 ng/mL, respectively), but negatively with IgE before it reach turnning point.
[en] Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has been increasing over the last three decades in China and around the world. Animal studies suggest that PBDEs could reduce blood levels of thyroid hormones, but it is unclear whether PBDEs disrupt thyroid function in humans. We used data from a prospective birth cohort of 123 pregnant women who were enrolled between September 2010 and March 2011 in Shandong, China. We measured the concentrations of eight PBDE congeners (n = 106) and five thyroid hormones (n = 107) in cord serum samples. We examined the relationship between prenatal exposure to PBDEs and thyroid function (n = 90). Median concentrations of BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 153 (detection frequencies > 75%) were 3.96, 8.27, 3.31, and 1.89 ng/g lipid, respectively. A 10-fold increase in BDE-99 and Σ4 PBDEs (the sum of BDEs 47, 99, 100, and 153) concentrations was associated with a 0.41 μg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10 to 0.72) and 0.37 μg/dL (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.68) increase in total thyroxine levels (TT4), respectively. No associations were found between other individual congeners and any of the five thyroid hormones. Our study suggests that prenatal exposure to PBDEs may be associated with higher TT4 in cord blood. Given the inconsistent findings across existing studies, our results need to be confirmed in additional studies. - Highlights: • Human exposure to PBDEs has been increased over recent decades in China. • PBDEs reduce thyroid hormones in animal studies, but it is unclear in humans. • We examined the relation of PBDE levels with thyroid hormones in cord blood. • Prenatal exposure to PBDEs is associated with higher total thyroxine levels. • The findings may have implications for fetal development. - Exposure to PBDEs is associated with higher total thyroxine levels in cord blood, and the findings may have implications for fetal development.
[en] 655 pregnant women answered a questionnaire after routine ultrasound examination around the 17th week of pregnancy. Every second women received written information about ultrasound examination in pregnancy. 37 women answered inconsistently and were withdrawn from the study. 435 women out of 618 were satisfied with the information they had received on ultrasound examination in pregnancy, although 171 of them had not received the letter of information. Only 26 out of 190 women who had received the information did not consider it to be satisfactory. 252 admitted being anxious prior to the examination, but there was no relation between anxiety and receiving or not receiving the letter. 584 answered that they felt more secure after the ultrasound examination and 609 were satisfied with the information they had received during the examination. All the women wanted to have a routine ultrasound examination during a possible subsequent pregnancy. 4 refs., 2 tabs
[en] Background: Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) is the technique of choice for prenatal diagnosis prior to 12 weeks gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility, and pattern of complications following first trimester Trans-abdominal Chorionic Villus Sampling (TA-CVS). Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in the Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department Military Hospital (MH) Rawalpindi from Jan 2007 to July 2008. Couples at risk of giving birth to a child with genetic disorder were identified and counselled. Trans-abdominal Chorionic Villus Sampling was done using double needle technique under ultrasound guidance. Immediate and late complications were followed up. Data was analysed using SPPS-10. Results: On 200 cases chorionic villus sampling was done as an outdoor procedure. Most common indication was thalassaemia trait 75 (37.5%). Most procedures were done between 12-13 weeks. All placental positions including 104 (52%) posterior and 71 (35.5%) anterior were approachable. Most aspirations were easy, however, in 30 (15%) the aspiration was difficult. Overall success rate was 100%. In 158 (79%) of the cases sample yield was good. One (0.5%) patient had vaginal bleeding and three (1.5%) had placental haematoma formation. Most patients (84%) experienced mild pain during the procedure. The procedure related miscarriage occurred in 2 (1%) patients while another patient developed this complication after 6 weeks. Conclusion: First trimester TA-CVS is an accurate and safe invasive prenatal diagnostic procedure. Placentas in almost any position can be approached without any significant risk to mother and the foetus. (author)
[en] Evidences regarding the effect of pre- and postnatal care on women fertility were scanty and rarely explored in countries struggling to curtail high population growth. This specialized health care enabled women for regular consultation with the health professionals and discussions with fellow women visiting clinics. It enhances their awareness, knowledge and understating about mother-child welfare during pre- and postnatal cares. This improves their control on subsequent fertility and underlines the need to explore the hidden dimension of female fertility. A doctoral level study on the determinants of marital fertility was conducted in district Faisalabad, Pakistan. It also examined the influence of pre- and postnatal care on family size in terms of children ever born. A random sample of 1051 married women was studied from 18 villages and 18 urban localities through formal survey. The study concluded that at least 5 prenatal and 2 postnatal cares proved effective in reducing marital fertility. Improved women access to specialized care, motivation through mass media, involvement of female representatives at union council level and effective use of primary support groups are the measures suggested to enhance women control on their fertility in Pakistan. (author)
[en] Exposure to pesticides is a major factor in the cause of dysfunction in the nervous system and neurodevelopment disorders in children at critical periods of great vulnerability. The aim of this study was to review scientific evidence published on neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in different stages, including neonates, infants, toddlers, preschool children, and school-age children. Full-text articles published in PubMed, Scopus, and ISI databases between 1973 and 2019 were reviewed and the scientific evidence was evaluated. Results: Fifty studies were eligible for inclusion in this quantitative synthesis. Fifteen of these papers evaluated the effects on neonates and infants, 18 on the effects on toddlers and preschool children, and 24 the effects on school-age children. Considerable evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to OPs contributes to child neurodevelopment disorders in all stages, whereas data about the effects of postnatal exposure are limited. Therefore, the available evidence supports the theory that sensitive time-windows occur prenatally rather than postnatally. Although 45 out of the total 50 selected articles found an association between OP exposure and child neurodevelopment, some of the evidence is controversial. A standardized methodology is needed to enable the comparison of the results in several studies, and further research studies are needed to warrant firmer conclusions. A systematic review of this evidence should be performed continuously to update the state of knowledge regarding neurodevelopmental effects associated with OP exposure.
[en] Gestational trophoblastic disease is a very rare event. We report a case of 38 years old woman with 7 consecutive molar pregnancies followed by choriocarcinoma diagnose at hysterectomy. (author)
[en] Recent work indicates that PPARα is required for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)-induced postnatal lethality resulting from prenatal exposure. The present study tested the hypothesis that relatively modest activation of PPARα during prenatal development will cause postnatal lethality, similar to that observed with PFOA, a relatively low affinity PPARα agonist. Female wild-type and Pparα-null mice were mated overnight with males of the same genotype. The presence of a copulatory plug on the morning after mating was indicative of pregnancy and considered gestation day (GD) 0. Plugged female mice were fed either a control diet or one containing clofibrate (0.5%) or Wy-14,643 (0.005%) until GD18 or until parturition. Mice were examined on GD18 or on postnatal day (PND) 20 following the prenatal exposure period. Dietary administration of clofibrate or Wy-14,643 did not affect maternal weight or weight gain, the average number of implantations, the percentage of litter loss, the average number of live/dead fetuses, average crown-rump length, or the average fetal weight on GD18 in either genotype. An increase in relative maternal liver weight and elevated expression of PPARα target genes in maternal and fetal livers on GD18 were observed, indicative of PPARα-dependent changes in both the maternal and fetal compartments. However, no defects in postnatal development were observed by either clofibrate or Wy-14,643 in either genotype by PND20. These results demonstrate that relatively low level activation of PPARα by clofibrate or Wy-14,643 during prenatal development does not cause postnatal lethality.
[en] The environmental toxicant lead (Pb) has long been known to induce neurological deficits. The 1st century Greek physician Pedanius Dioscorides noted that “lead makes the mind give way”. Current studies are suggesting the effects of Pb on behaviors may involve the immune system and conversely some immunomodulatory changes may be due to Pb effects in the central nervous system. Although Pb-induced disorders do not appear to discriminate among females and males, this report discusses the differences observed in human and animal studies regarding differential gender effects on gene expression after Pb exposure. The overall ill health outcomes are apparent with variant levels of Pb exposure and exposures at different times in development. However, the consensus is that doses leading to blood lead levels > 5 μg/dl and prenatal exposures are most pathogenic. Although the general detriments induced by Pb may be similar in females and males, there are sex specific outcomes on health and behavior. It is suggested that Pb induces more oxidative stress in females and more upregulation of genes responding to oxidative stress, while males have more proteolytic destruction; but in both cases, there is generation of altered/denatured self-constituents causing inflammation and loss of homeostasis of neuronal and immune functions. The higher estrogen levels of females are indicated as the reason for more Pb-induced reactive oxygen species in females. This review describes some of the different genes involved in female and male responses to Pb exposure and involved pathways.