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[en] 334 ultrasound-cephalometries and 231 X-ray fetographies were performed for antenatal assessment of fetal maturity as well as for exact estimation of gestational age in women with unknown date of confinement. The accuracy of the predictions was compared. Ultrasound-cephalometry gave best results when performed until the 20th week of gestation. A correct prediction was obtained in 80.4% of cases. After the 20th week of gestation, the accuracy of prediction decreased. Radiology on the contrary gave optimal results at the end of pregnancy. A correct prediction of the date of confinement was obtained in 73.8% of cases, when the X-ray fetography was performed between the 37th and 40th week of gestation. At the end of gestation radiography should be performed, if there is a discrepancy between ultrasound and clinical estimation or if ultrasound-cephalometry was not carried out in early pregnancy - especially if induction of labour is necessary. (author)
[en] In CBA/CBA mice, electrophysiological function and morphology of the vestibular and cochlear parts of the adult inner ear were analyzed following prenatal irradiation on the 12th, 13th and 16th gestational days (GD). The pregnant females were subjected to whole body irradiation, giving 0.5, 1 or 2 Gy as a single dose. The irradiated fetuses were born at full term, and reached maturity (were 1-2 months old) before inner ear analysis. Low, single-dose irradiation affects the embryonic development of the inner ear. The effect was dose dependent and there were critical periods particularly vulnerable to irradiation. In the adult animal there was a correlation between functional and morphological disturbance. Irradiation functioned as a sensitizer, causing premature ageing. Furthermore, irradiation on GD 12 or 13 (at the otocyst stage) * but not at more advanced embryonic age * induced immunoreactivity for neurofilament proteins in the vestibular hair cells (HC) and to a minor extent also in cochlear HC, i.e. expression of intermediate filament proteins in the cell cytoskeleton was altered. (authors)
[en] Prenatal ultrasound examination has been proven to be effective in the diagnosis of prenatal chromosomal abnormalities. the thickened nuchal fold, the first sign of downs syndrome (T21), was first described over 20 years ago. multiple sonographically identifiable markers have been described as associated with T21. other chromosomal abnormalities e.g. Trisomy 18, Trisomy 13 and triploidy have typical sonographic markers (signs) in low risk women usually require further investigation; however, patients at increased risk for aneuploidy due to increased maternal age and or abnormal serum screening may benefit from morphologic (anatomy) sonogram screening for Sonographic signs of chromosomal abnormalities
[en] Complete text of publication follows. Objectives - Investigation of mental health and psychosocial development of persons from Belarus exposed in utero to radiation following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Methods - Ten year follow-up of 245 persons exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and 239 persons of the same age from non- or slightly contaminated regions. Psychiatric and psychosocial assessments were performed at the age 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years. Psychiatric diagnosis of the children in both groups was established by means of a semi-structured clinical interview based on the diagnostic criteria of the ICD-10, Chapter V (Mental and behavioural disorders). Results - The persons who were exposed to the influence of radionuclides antenatally showed a relative increase in mental and behavioral disorders compared to the control group. This was mainly due to the increased prevalence of cases of specific developmental disorders of speech and language, specific developmental disorders of motor function, emotional disorders and disorders of social functioning. Phobic anxiety disorders were the most common emotional disorders in both groups (27 cases - 10.8 % in the exposed group vs 17 cases - 6.8 % in the control group. The relative risk of the development of emotional disorders was 2.67 (P<0.001). There was no difference between the cases and control groups in terms of the prevalence of mental retardation, specific learning disorders, hyperkinetic disorders and other mental and behavioral disorders. At adolescent age there was also no difference in the prevalence of conduct disorders between the cases and the control groups. Conduct disorders were often associated with unfavorable psychological surroundings, including unsatisfactory family relations and learning difficulties at school. Conduct disorders at adolescent age (15-16) were closely correlated with hyperkinetic disorders (r=0.72; P<0.01), disorders of scholastic skills (r=0.72; P<0.01) and borderline intellectual functioning (r=0.56; P<0.05) of the same people at age 10-12.