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[en] Energy pricing has been shown to have direct impact on energy demand and hence on energy efficiency. Regulated pricing which is below actual production price encourages inefficient use of energy with sometimes associated environmental problems. The important consideration presently being given to development of energy in an environmentally safe and economically prosperous society implies that energy pricing an play an important role in achieving these objectives
[en] Mid 2010, the Office of Energy Regulation of the Netherlands Competition Authority published its study on the effects of the Dutch heat Act. This study was one of the reasons why the Dutch minister of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation initiated changes to the Heat Act. To get a picture of the effects of the Heat Act in its changed shape, the minister asked the Office of Energy Regulation NMa to map the effects of the adjusted bill.
[nl]Medio 2010 heeft de Energiekamer van de Nederlandse Mededingingsautoriteit een rapport gepubliceerd over zijn onderzoek naar de effecten van de Warmtewet. Mede naar aanleiding van dat onderzoek heeft de Minister van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie gewerkt aan wijzigingen aan de Warmtewet. Om een beeld te krijgen van de effecten van de Warmtewet in gewijzigde vorm en van eventuele differentiatie in de maximumprijs, heeft de Minister de Energiekamer NMa verzocht om ook voor het gewijzigde wetsvoorstel de effecten in kaart te brengen.
[en] This second consultation paper issued by the United Kingdom Office of Electricity Regulation summarises the responses received to the first consultation paper and provides further information and thoughts on the main issues. These include: the coverage, duration and form of the price restraint; the licence conditions on non-discrimination; future arrangements for setting the maximum retail price of electricity; future arrangements for energy efficiency. Responses are sought from all those with an interest in any aspect of future price restraint. (UK)
[en] In October of 2009, the French Ministry of Economy asked the author to chair a work group on oil price volatility. The report resulting from that work was submitted to the minister on February 9, 2010. Based on the report, this article focuses on three major elements: (i) the operation of the oil market, with interacting physical basics and financial basics (ii) financial market regulation, more specifically commodities-derived product markets and current work in that area and (iii) the lessons one can draw from that exercise in terms of energy policy. Significant projects have been initiated on global, European and national levels. (author)
[en] Previous studies have found evidence of asymmetric price adjustment in U.S. retail gasoline prices in that gasoline prices rise more rapidly in response to a cost increase than fall in response to a cost decrease. By estimating a threshold cointegration model that allows for multiple regimes, I am able to test how sensitive this result is to outlying observations. In contrast to previous studies, I find little evidence of asymmetry for the vast majority of observations and that the asymmetry is being driven by a small number of outlying observations. (author)
[en] Currently, the petroleum products market is totally regulated. The operations and pricing mechanism must be conducted under prevailing Government rules and regulations. Indeed, in Nigeria today, no industry is as regulated as the Oil Industry (downstream emphasised) - which constitute the totality of petroleum products market. This situation has arisen as a result of the seeming classification of the oil industry as being strategic. Due to the regulations of the market, it can no longer adapt to the changing economic trend of liberalization and interplay of market forces, even when under serious pressure to yield to the dynamics of free market enterprise. As a result of the resistance to change, the market becomes stressed and over-burdened by the shackles of regulation which leads to a breakdown of the system and the impact becomes noticeable almost immediately. Needless to emphasize that, for the petroleum products market to survive and thrive, a cursory look at what obtains currently would afford us the opportunity to access the strength and weaknesses of such system, with a view to ascertaining the survival strategy to be applied for sustainable growth. In addition, a serious examination of the roles being played by the key operators in the petroleum products market otherwise called down stream operators (refineries, pipelines and marketers) is imperative. Since it requires the co-operation of the operators to achieve synergy in the market, any bottleneck arising from any of the sub-sectors has the capacity to disrupt the system
[en] As the electric utility industry continues to go through the process of restructuring, utilities are finding themselves operating not only as regulated entities but also as firms that compete for customers and sales. Some services, including services associated with distribution, are being unbundled or peeled off from the core of operations and, where possible, are being opened to competition. But these partly regulated and partly competitive areas are treacherous for utilities and their affiliates, who will be handicapped in their competitive efforts and subject to constraints not placed on their competitors. There are good reasons why such difficulties should be expected. And there are guidelines for pricing and competitive positioning that can assist in avoiding the worst problems. The first step is to recognize the archetypes of the regulated electric distribution utility and the competitive firm. In plotting their deregulation strategies, utilities and their affiliates must recognize that they will continue to be disadvantaged by regulators who are more concerned with keeping them in check than freeing them to compete
[en] There is a consensus building in the natural gas industry that most of the future growth in sales will occur because of an increase in the use of gas for power generation. Certainly, there are environmental, operational and economic reasons for this to be so. However, the power generation market has many unique requirements which can make it particularly difficult to the gas industry to supply. Until these obstacles are overcome, growth through this market may be limited. One particular area of perceived difficulty is contracting for long-term reliable and affordable gas supplies. This paper will focus on the issues surrounding long-term gas contracts, attempt to put them in a historical context and discuss some of the ways these issues are now being overcome