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[en] While we expect quantum computers to surpass their classical counterparts in the future, current devices are prone to high error rates and techniques to minimise the impact of these errors are indispensable. There already exists a variety of error mitigation methods addressing this quantum noise that differ in effectiveness, and scalability. But for a more systematic and comprehensible approach we propose the introduction of modelling, in particular for representing cause-effect relations as well as for evaluating methods or combinations thereof with respect to a selection of relevant criteria.
[en] Quantum walks have emerged as an interesting alternative to the usual circuit model for quantum computing. While still universal for quantum computing, the quantum walk model has very different physical requirements, which lends itself more naturally to some physical implementations, such as linear optics. Numerous authors have considered walks with one or two walkers, on one-dimensional graphs, and several experimental demonstrations have been performed. In this paper, we discuss generalizing the model of discrete time quantum walks to the case of an arbitrary number of walkers acting on arbitrary graph structures. We present a formalism that allows for the analysis of such situations, and several example scenarios for how our techniques can be applied. We consider the most important features of quantum walks-measurement, distinguishability, characterization and the distinction between classical and quantum interference. We also discuss the potential for physical implementation in the context of linear optics, which is of relevance to present-day experiments.
[en] We present a fault-tolerant (FT) semi-global control strategy for universal quantum computers. We show that an N-dimensional array of qubits where only (N-1)-dimensional addressing resolution is available is compatible with FT universal quantum computation. What is more, we show that measurements and individual control of qubits are required only at the boundaries of the FT computer. Our model alleviates the heavy physical conditions on current qubit candidates imposed by addressability requirements and represents an option for improving their scalability.
[en] Conflicting interest nonlocal games are special Bayesian games played by noncooperative players without communication. In recent years, some conflicting interest nonlocal games have been proposed where quantum advice can help players to obtain higher payoffs. In this work we perform an experiment of six conflicting interest nonlocal games using the IBM quantum computer made up of five superconducting qubits. The experimental results demonstrate quantum advantage in four of these games, whereas the other two games fail to showcase quantum advantage in the experiment.
[en] In this paper, we present the fault-tolerant conversion between quantum Reed–Muller (QRM)(2, 5) and QRM(2, 7), and also the conversion between QBCH(15, 7) and QRM(2, 7). Either of the two schemes provides a method to realize universal fault-tolerant quantum computation. In particular, the gate overhead and logical error rate of a logical T gate are provided, as well as the comparison with magic state distillation scheme. In addition, we propose two other fault-tolerant conversion schemes based on and constructions. (paper)
[en] Quantum computing technologies pose a significant threat to the currently employed public-key cryptography protocols. In this paper, we discuss the impact of the quantum threat on public key infrastructures (PKIs), which are used as a part of security systems for protecting production environments. We analyze security issues of existing models with a focus on requirements for a fast transition to post-quantum solutions. Although our primary focus is on the attacks with quantum computing, we also discuss some security issues that are not directly related to the used cryptographic algorithms but are essential for the overall security of the PKI. We attempt to provide a set of security recommendations regarding the PKI from the viewpoints of attacks with quantum computers.
[en] Geometric phases arise naturally in a variety of quantum systems with observable consequences. They also arise in quantum computations when dressed states are used in gating operations. Here we show how they arise in these gating operations and how one may take advantage of the dressed states producing them. Specifically, we show that for a given, but arbitrary Hamiltonian, and at an arbitrary time τ, there always exists a set of dressed states such that a given gate operation can be performed by the Hamiltonian up to a phase φ. The phase is a sum of a dynamical phase and a geometric phase. We illustrate the dressed phase for several systems.
[en] We apply quantum control techniques to a long spin chain by acting only on two qubits at one of its ends, thereby implementing universal quantum computation by a combination of quantum gates on these qubits and indirect swap operations across the chain. It is shown that the control sequences can be computed and implemented efficiently. We discuss the application of these ideas to physical systems such as superconducting qubits in which full control of long chains is challenging.
[en] Ichikawa et al. [Phys. Rev. A 78, 052105 (2008)] showed that exchange symmetry gives rise to a simple characterization of whether multipartite pure quantum states being either globally entangled or fully separable. In this Brief Report, we provide a simple alternative approach and some extension to their conclusions.
[en] Synapses in real neural circuits can take discrete values including zero (silent or potential) synapses. The computational role of zero synapses in unsupervised feature learning of unlabeled noisy data is still unclear, thus it is important to understand how the sparseness of synaptic activity is shaped during learning and its relationship with receptive field formation. Here, we formulate this kind of sparse feature learning by a statistical mechanics approach. We find that learning decreases the fraction of zero synapses, and when the fraction decreases rapidly around a critical data size, an intrinsically structured receptive field starts to develop. Further increasing the data size refines the receptive field, while a very small fraction of zero synapses remain to act as contour detectors. This phenomenon is discovered not only in learning a handwritten digits dataset, but also in learning retinal neural activity measured in a natural-movie-stimuli experiment. (letter)