Results 1 - 10 of 1354
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[en] Reconstructions of total solar irradiance (TSI) rely mainly on linear relations between TSI variation and indices of facular area. When these are extrapolated to the prolonged 15th-17th century Spoerer and Maunder solar activity minima, the estimated solar dimming is insufficient to explain the mid-millennial climate cooling of the Little Ice Age. We draw attention here to evidence that the relation departs from linearity at the lowest activity levels. Imaging photometry and radiometry indicate an increased TSI contribution per unit area from small network faculae by a factor of 2-4 compared with larger faculae in and around active regions. Even partial removal of this more TSI-effective network at prolonged minima could enable climatically significant solar dimming, yet be consistent with the weakened but persistent 11 yr cycle observed in Be 10 during the Maunder Minimum. The mechanism we suggest would not alter previous findings that increased solar radiative forcing is insufficient to account for 20th century global warming.
[en] Hourly global irradiations on tilted planes are required for dimensioning PV systems. However, for most sites, only global irradiations on a horizontal plane are available, and, given that to calculate the global irradiation on inclined planes the first step is to determine the diffuse component and this is not collected, we have studied the behaviour of the diffuse component on an hourly basis. Most parametrization models for the derivation of hourly diffuse irradiance from hourly global irradiance involve the clearness index, a parameter that implicitly includes solar altitude. The present paper has focused on the possibility of also including 'mean solar altitude α-bar' explicitly as a parameter in addition to the clearness index. Several analytical models are proposed, validated and compared here, using solar data collected on our station located in Cordoba (Spain)
[en] Purpose. Our work on dose-painting based on the possible risk characteristics for local recurrence in tumor subvolumes and the optimization of treatment plans using biological objective functions that are region-specific are reviewed. Materials and methods. A series of intensity modulated dose-painting techniques are compared to their corresponding intensity modulated plans in which the entire PTV is treated to a single dose level, delivering the same equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the entire PTV. Iso-TCP and iso-NTCP maps are introduced as a tool to aid the planner in the evaluation of the resulting non-uniform dose distributions. Iso-TCP and iso-NTCP maps are akin to iso-dose maps in 3D conformal radiotherapy. The impact of the currently limited diagnostic accuracy of functional imaging on a series of dose-painting techniques is also discussed. Results. Utilizing biological parameters (risk-adaptive optimization) in the generation of dose-painting plans results in an increase in the therapeutic ratio as compared to conventional dose-painting plans in which optimization techniques based on physical dose are employed. Conclusion. Dose-painting employing biological parameters appears to be a promising approach for individualized patient- and disease-specific radiotherapy
[en] We have analyzed the solar irradiance data from the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) during the time period from 1984 October 15 to 2003 October 15. By first filtering the data by Simple Exponential Smoothing, we have applied the periodogram method to the processed data in order to search for its time variation. The study exhibits multi-periodicities on these data around 110, 118, 574 and 740d with very high confidence levels (more than 99%). These periods are significantly similar to the periods of other solar activities which may suggest that solar irradiance may be associated with other solar activities.
[en] Based on the irradiance moment definition and the analytical expression of waveform propagation for hypergeometric-Gaussian type-II beams passing through an ABCD system, the kurtosis parameter is derived analytically and illustrated numerically. The kurtosis parameters of the Gaussian beam, modified Bessel modulated Gaussian beam with quadrature radial and elegant Laguerre–Gaussian beams are obtained by treating them as special cases of the present treatment. The obtained results show that the kurtosis parameter depends on the change of the beam order m and the hollowness parameter p, such as its decrease with increasing m and increase with increasing p. (paper)
[en] Although intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) may increase the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy for a range of malignancies, only a few IMRT treatments have yet been performed in the Nordic countries. The scores derived from a national survey to assess Norwegian oncologists' expectations of IMRT are presented. A questionnaire was distributed to all consultants in oncology at Norwegian radiotherapy clinics. Summary scores of daily general radiotherapy workload (DGRTW), acquaintance with IMRT (AI) and expectations of IMRT (EI) were derived. Thirty-nine questionnaires (67%) were returned from a total of 58 oncologists. The oncologists' scores on the AI scale (mean score: 7.5 out of 21) were rather low. Their AI scores were found to be positively correlated with their DGRTW. Higher scores on the EI scale were documented (mean score: 6.2 out of 14): 15 oncologists (39%) rated IMRT as one of the three major contributors to potentially increased cancer survival. Oncologists treating patients with prostate, head and neck, gastrointestinal and CNS tumours had higher EI scores than the other oncologists (7.7 vs. 5.1; p=0.01). The Norwegian radiation oncologists' expectations of IMRT are high in terms of both the potential clinical benefit and the rate of implementation. This should encourage the radiotherapy communities to continue (or rapidly initiate) their efforts in providing the routines required for safe implementation of IMRT
[en] Power output will decline when foreign objests covered on PV panels. In this paper a system dsigned to detect the power output decline caused by foreign objests in different situations effectively. It is mainly composed by temperature detection module, irradiance detection module, power detection module, and embedded minimum system module. A power output model of foreign objests on surface is analized and a number of experiments were conducted in indoor and outdoor. The result shows that characterictic measured is consistent with the theoretical model compared with that of a clean panel. Therefore, this system can detect the coverage of the foreign objects on panel correctly. (paper)
[en] The absolutely calibrated infrared (IR) stellar spectra of standard stars described by Engelke et al. are being extended into the visible and will span a continuous wavelength range from ∼0.35 μm to 35.0 μm. This paper, which is a continuation of the series on calibration initiated with Cohen et al., presents the foundation of this extension. We find that due to various irregularities Vega (α Lyr) is not suitable for its traditional role as the primary visible or near-infrared standard star. We therefore define a new zero-point flux that is independent of Vega and, as far as is feasible, uses measured spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and fluxes derived from photometry. The calibrated primary stars now underpinning this zero-point definition are 109 Vir in the visible and Sirius (α CMa) in the infrared. The resulting zero-point SED tests well against solar analog data presented by Rieke et al. while also maintaining an unambiguous link to specific calibration stars, thus providing a pragmatic range of options for any researcher wishing to tie it to a given set of photometry.
[en] Here we analyze solar activity by focusing on time variations of the number of sunspot groups (SGs) as a function of their modified Zurich class. We analyzed data for solar cycles 20-23 by using Rome (cycles 20 and 21) and Learmonth Solar Observatory (cycles 22 and 23) SG numbers. All SGs recorded during these time intervals were separated into two groups. The first group includes small SGs (A, B, C, H, and J classes by Zurich classification), and the second group consists of large SGs (D, E, F, and G classes). We then calculated small and large SG numbers from their daily mean numbers as observed on the solar disk during a given month. We report that the time variations of small and large SG numbers are asymmetric except for solar cycle 22. In general, large SG numbers appear to reach their maximum in the middle of the solar cycle (phases 0.45-0.5), while the international sunspot numbers and the small SG numbers generally peak much earlier (solar cycle phases 0.29-0.35). Moreover, the 10.7 cm solar radio flux, the facular area, and the maximum coronal mass ejection speed show better agreement with the large SG numbers than they do with the small SG numbers. Our results suggest that the large SG numbers are more likely to shed light on solar activity and its geophysical implications. Our findings may also influence our understanding of long-term variations of the total solar irradiance, which is thought to be an important factor in the Sun-Earth climate relationship.
[en] The study was undertaken in order to compare dose plans for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) dose plans in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Clinical data from 20 consecutive patients treated with IMRT are presented. For 11 patients 3D-CRT plans were made and compared to the IMRT plans with respect to doses to the planning target volumes (PTVs) and to organs at risk (OARs). For comparison of the conformation of dose to defined target volumes the conformity index (CI) was used. Target volume coverage and critical organ protection were significantly improved with IMRT compared to 3D-CRT. One-year loco-regional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were 79%, 72%, and 80%. Two patients have had recurrence in the clinical target volume (CTV) only and seven patients have relapsed in distant organs and/or in head-and-neck areas outside the target areas. The study confirms that IMRT is superior to 3D-CRT in the treatment of NPC. As locoregional control of NPC improves we are facing an increasing number of recurrences outside the irradiated area