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[en] Purpose: The aim of the study is to examine factors associated with the goal commitment of radiography departments' staff. The associations studied are (1) organizational change, (2) work-related factors, (3) psychosocial work environment, and (4) intention to leave. Method: The follow-up study was performed between 2005 and 2007 in co-operation with 10 radiography departments of two Finnish municipalities. In 2005 the response rate was 60% (n = 97/163) and in 2007 it was 49% (n = 73/150). Results: The goal commitment had dropped during the organizational change from 3.96 in 2005 to 3.60 in 2007 (scale 1-5) (p = 0.001). Best predictors for the goal commitment of radiography departments' staff were having children (OR 4.4) and perceiving functional environment clearly (OR 2.6). Correlation between the goal commitment and intention to leave of the staff was -0.32 (p = 0.01). Conclusion: From the viewpoint of the commitment of the radiography departments' staff, the trend of uniting quite independent health care units into larger entities seems not to be beneficial. This study reveals that commitment to one's work unit is most of all a question of stability and job security. This is a fact the leadership of the radiography departments should take into account, appreciate and support to assure the tenure and productivity of their workforce.
[en] Due to the fact that Roentgen never reported the details of the discovery of his 'new rays', he left the door open for speculative interpretations. As a contribution to a serious analysis of the history of Roentgen's discovery, this paper presents a previously unnoticed letter relating to an order of a number of very thin crystalline absorbers. The addressee is unfortunately unknown. The letter is dated November 15, 1895. Therefore, this letter must be considered to be the first well documented remark made by Roentgen after seeing the earliest indications of the new rays only one week earlier. The order seems to emphasize the role of a particular type of cathode ray tube developed by Philipp Lenard, Nobel Prize winner of 1905, and manufactured by the glassblower Louis Mueller-Unkel in the discovery of the new radiation. It partly contradicts an analysis based on Roentgen's order book from Wuerzburg made by the author et al. some years ago. Completed by the document presented here, Roentgen's order correspondence allows some insight into Roentgen's intentions during this productive period. The autograph was found at Staatsbibliothek Berlin, Sammlung Darmstaedter, by the author. (orig.)
[en] Purpose: The purpose of this study was to present ideas to upgrade job performance and improve organizational management by analyzing leadership aspects and organizational cultures of radiological technologist organizations. Method: A questionnaire was used to collect data from 261 radiological technologists working in the city of Busan. Then, SPSS/PC + Win 13 was used to statistically analyze the collected data. One-way ANOVA was adopted to test differences among groups, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to examine the effect of organizational culture and leadership upon organizational effectiveness. Results: First, it was found that radiological technologists stressed consensus most among the 4 types of organizational culture and regarded core transformational leadership as the right type of leadership. Second, regarding the relationship between leadership and organizational effectiveness, transformational leadership had the highest influence upon organizational effectiveness. Third, as for the relationship between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness, it was found that a developmental culture has the highest influence upon organizational effectiveness, followed by a culture of consensus. Conclusion: If transformational leadership and consensual culture are used properly for upgrading job performance in the organization, conflicts among radiological technologists might be reduced, thereby enhancing organizational effectiveness.
[en] Objectives: Demand for radiology services in the National Health Service (NHS) is rising. The pressure felt by radiology departments is compounded by growing public expectation, government guidelines, targets, penalties and tight budget restrictions. One widely supported hypothesis is that inefficiency in the NHS is a result of a mismatch between the variances in capacity and demand. In the light of an increasing trend towards evidence-based management the study aims to model, analyse and understand variations in plain-film workflow in a radiology department and evaluate whether the data provide evidence to base future decisions upon. Methods: Retrospective data for a period of 6 months were collected, from the Computer Radiology Information System (CRIS), staff rotas and clinic diaries. Capacity was measured by the planned number of radiographers working within the department. Demand was measured by the daily workload of the department, number of plain-film events, and was subdivided to include referral source. To further analyse the drivers for demand the number of outpatient clinics was also recorded. Descriptive statistical testing was used to understand the variability in the obtained data. Levene's test was undertaken to test the homogeneity of daily variances in clinics and workload. Establishment of correlative relationships was undertaken using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r) between chosen variables. Linear regression testing was performed in order to establish the capacity of the number of clinics running to predict the workload, adjusted for GP events, of the department. Results: Mean daily workload, capacity and clinics show variable correlation. Workload and clinics demonstrate relatively high variation; workload; range, max = 178, min = 46, mean = 95.58, standard deviation (SD) = 25.35, coefficient of variation (CV) = 0.27. Clinics; mean = 4.79, SD = 1.63, CV = 0.34. Variances in daily clinics and daily workflow are homogeneous, Levene tests F = 1.683, p = 0.159 and F = 0.67109, p = 0.614, respectively. There was a low degree of positive correlation between workload and capacity r = 0.322, p < 0.01. There was a moderate degree of negative correlation between clinics and GP examinations r = -0.486, p < 0.00. There was a marked degree of positive correlation between clinics and workload, when workload has been adjusted for GP events r = 0.686, p < 0.00. The linear regression suggested that 47% of the variance in GP-adjusted workload could be explained by the number of clinics (r2 = 0.471, F = 95.201, p < 0.00). Conclusions: The results suggest potential hazards in the current intuitive approach to workflow management. The study suggests two practical approaches for management in applying the findings. The results support the concepts of evidence-based management and a global patient-pathway process mindset.
[en] Although much of the activity around D-day is recorded many of the support services such as radiography do not feature. This account of a radiographer at the Normandy landings gives an insight into the everyday work of a lone radiographer in the Armed Forces in the 1940s. This work is the product of an oral history taken by Jean Barrett in accordance with the acknowledged ethical requirements of oral history. Eric Wood has given his permission for the publication of his stories. The work was presented at the conference for the British Society for the History of Radiology 2008 (Sheffield).
[en] Job satisfaction is very important for adequate manpower management in the medical field. To study job satisfaction among the radiologic technologists, 344 cases were reviewed in five university hospitals and one general hospital. Self-administered questionnaire was used to study their socioeconomic characteristics, working conditions, job satisfaction, and the factors affecting there job satisfaction. The results were as follows : 1. There was statistically significant difference in job satisfaction according to the their department of employment, position, and hospital characteristics. 2. The group that was satisfied with their salary had a higher job satisfaction score, whereas others who were not satisfied ranked lower. 3. The positive answering group on the ability and job recognition ranked higher score on the job satisfaction than the negative answering group. 4. The group that was in good relationship with their superiors and co-workers scored higher on job satisfaction. From the above results, the job satisfaction was high for the group with positive thinking and reply, but the intentin to change their job was low. Considering the fact that these results represent only 6 hospitals from limited arease, therefore, necessary to include more medical facilities nationwide, especially small-medium sized clinics or hospitals where the difficulty with high turnover rate of employment is expected, to study further various factors involving job satisfaction in the future
[en] Aim: To evaluate the degree of variability in clinicians' interpretation of expressions used by radiologists to communicate their level of diagnostic confidence within radiological reports. Materials and methods: Clinicians were solicited to complete a prospective survey asking them to select the approximate perceived level of certainty, expressed as a percentage, associated with 20 expressions used by radiologists to communicate their level of diagnostic confidence within radiological reports. The median and inter-decile range (IDR) were computed for each expression, with a smaller IDR indicating greater reproducibility. Clinicians were also asked questions regarding their attitudes about radiologists' communication of diagnostic confidence. Results: Forty-nine surveys were completed. Median confidence associated with the expressions ranged from 10–90%. Reproducibility of the expressions was variable, as IDR ranged from 15–53%, although a median IDR of 40% indicated overall poor reproducibility. Expressions with relatively higher reproducibility included “most likely”, “likely”, and “unlikely” (IDR 15–20%), whereas expressions with relatively lower reproducibility included “compatible with”, “suspicious for”, “possibly,” and “can be seen in the setting of” (IDR ≥45%). Only 20% of clinicians agreed or strongly agreed that radiologists consistently use such expressions within their reports. Fifty-five percent of clinicians preferred that diagnostic confidence be communicated as a percentage rather than as a textual expression. Conclusion: There was poor reproducibility in clinicians' interpretations of many expressions used by radiologists to communicate their level of diagnostic confidence. Use of percentages to convey diagnostic confidence within reports may mitigate this source of ambiguity in radiologists' communication with clinicians. - Highlights: • Clinicians recorded certainty associated with expressions of diagnostic confidence. • Reproducibility of confidence associated with many of the expressions was poor. • Select expressions with relatively more reproducible confidence were identified. • 20% of clinicians believed radiologists consistently use such expressions in reports. • 55% of clinicians preferred that diagnostic confidence be expressed as a percentage
[en] Highlights: • Radiographer reports of knee radiographs demonstrate significant variation. • The variation manifests as differences in both length and structure. • The variation is comparable to that established for radiologist reports. - Abstract: IntroductionThe literature suggests that there is variation in various features of the written radiology report for a range of body areas and imaging modalities. The retrospective study presented here aims to determine if similar variation is demonstrated in a group of 5 reporting radiographers in a UK NHS Trust.
[en] In the United States, teleradiology using an external service to provide preliminary or final medical image interpretation is an increasingly necessary component of radiology services, especially for smaller institutions or practices. This review aims to provide a background history to the current teleradiology services provided and also addresses the limitations and issues involved in organising such a service. (orig.)