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[en] Microporous zeolite adsorbent materials are widely used as a medium for separating gases. Adsorbent gas separation systems can run at ambient temperature and require minimal pressure to flow the input gas stream across the adsorbent bed. This allows for low energy consumption relative to other types of separation systems. Specific zeolites also have a high capacity and selectivity for the gases of interest, leading to compact and efficient separation systems. These characteristics are particularly advantageous for the application of signatures detection for non-proliferation, which often requires portable systems with low power draw. Savannah River National Laboratory currently is the leader in using zeolites for noble gas sampling for non-proliferation detection platforms. However, there is a constant customer need for improved sampling capabilities. Development of improved zeolite materials will lead to improved sampling technology. Microwave-assisted and conventional hydrothermal synthesis have been used to make a variety of zeolites tailored for noble gas separation. Materials characterization data collected in this project has been used to help guide the synthesis of improved zeolite materials. Candidate materials have been down-selected based on highest available surface area, maximum overall capacity for gas adsorption and highest selectivity. The creation of improved adsorbent materials initiated in this project will lead to development of more compact, efficient and effective noble gas collectors and concentrators. The work performed in this project will be used as a foundation for funding proposals for further material development as well as possible industrial applications.
[en] We have investigated multiple ionization of noble gases by proton and hydrogen impact at low and intermediate projectile energies; 50, 120 and 210 keV. The recoil-ion-charge-state-selected yields were measured in coincidence with electrons emitted at 90 deg. with respect to the beam direction. Differential yields were obtained for recoil-ion charges up to five. For single ionization a comparison with previous data gives good agreement for the electron energy range of interest here. Significant differences were observed for the case of charged and neutral projectiles. Comparisons between multiple and single ionization were made. For the targets investigated, Kr, Ne, Ar, we observed a characteristic structure, which depends on projectile charge and velocity. For proton impact, the ratio of multiply to singly charged recoils presents a distinctive enhancement at an electron velocity close to that of the projectile. This structure disappears for H impact, probably due to the dominance of simultaneous ionization of target and projectile electrons. (author)
[en] The current status of experimental and clinical applications for functional MR imaging of pulmonary ventilation using hyperpolarized noble gases are reviewed. 3He and 129Xe can be hyperpolarized by optical pumping techniques such as spin exchange or metastability exchange in sufficient amounts. This process leads to an artificial, non-equilibrium increase of the density of excited nuclei which represents the source of the MR signal. Those hyperpolarized gases are administered mostly via inhalation, and will fill airways and airspaces allowing for ventilation imaging. Recent human studies concentrate on imaging the airways and airspaces with high spatial resolution. Normal ventilation is reflected by an almost complete and homogeneous distribution of the hyperpolarized gas represented by the signal detected. Loss of signal or inhomogeneous signal distribution represent mass effects and ventilatory abnormalities. Even healthy subjects with seasonal allergies without pulmonary symptoms have been observed to exhibit transient ventilation defects. Real-time imaging of ventilation has become feasible for 3He MR imaging and allows for assessment of ventilation-distribution. Furthermore, functional oxygen-sensitive 3He MR imaging opens the field of non-invasive assessment of regional intrapulmonary oxygen concentrations in vivo. Knowing that the diffusion of gas is affected by the geometry and nature of its environment, diffusion measurements are under investigation as a sensitive marker of diseases that involve structural changes of lung parenchyma, such as emphysema and fibrosis. Whereas 3He is not absorbed and is restricted to the airspaces, 129Xe is soluble in blood and lipid-rich tissue. This presents the opportunity for additional dissolved-phase imaging, providing a step towards simultaneous ventilation-perfusion studies
[en] Highlights: • A novel σ-hole bond is reported. • Interaction energies of the resuliting complexes are between −2.72 and −7.05 kcal/mol. • The formation of an HB interaction can increase the strength of SEABs. A novel type of σ-hole interaction is characterized between some noble gas containing molecules (KrOF2, KrO3, XeOF2 and XeO3) and methyl (CH3) or ethyl (C2H5) radical by means of ab initio calculations. This interaction is named as single-electron aerogen bond (SEAB), in view of the concepts of aerogen bond and single-electron bond interactions. The properties of SEABs are studied by molecular electrostatic potential, quantum theory of atom in molecules, natural bonding orbital and noncovalent interaction index analyses. The formation of an O⋯H interaction tends to increase the strength of the SEAB, when they coexist in a ternary complex.
[en] The broad band absorption in electron beam excited rare gas plasmas was measured for neon, argon, krypton and xenon gas. A broad continuum emission from a xenon flashlamp was used as the probe source. Absorption data was obtained over a 1500 A range. Absorption peaks in argon, neon and xenon correlate well with the predicted peak absorption cross sections for the respective dimer ions. No absorption peak in krypton was observed. Secondary absorption peaks of comparable magnitude to the dimer absorption peak were also observed in argon and xenon