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[en] Requirements for qualification of reactor operators in nuclear safety regulations were discussed in this paper. The new issue was described in the confirmation of education level of reactor operators. The understanding to the requirements for Educational Level in Qualification of Reactor Operators was provided according to Higher Education Law of the People's Republic of China. It was proposed to improve the confirmation of qualification of reactor operators as soon as possible. (authors)
[en] After years of being in the international wilderness, amid suspicion and concern about the true nature of its nuclear power programme, Iran is emerging from the cold and the world has a new business landscape to explore following the lifting of many economic sanctions.
[en] We describe properties of measurement quantities and measurement processes verbally by using accepted terms, some of which are sanctioned by international standards and guides. However, some of these terms are used inconsistently, as compared to definitions in base sciences like for example Mathematics, Signal and System Theory, Estimation and Optimisation Theory, Stochastics and Statistics. This is the case for different terms in Metrology, like stability, drift and stationarity. In this paper we show systematic relations between these and similar terms and discuss the adequacy of their application in practice. We have to admit that we incorrectly implement the terms stable / instable unconsciously, when we describe properties of measurement results, due to the use of common colloquial habits
[en] The activities of Safety Administration Division covers many fields in Tokai-Works such as the management of a safety and health, the crisis management and the security, the safeguards of the nuclear materials, the transport of nuclear materials, and the management of a quality assurance. This report is summary of the activities of Safety Administration Division in October to December in 2003. (author)
[en] This paper discusses the issue of whether unilateral economic sanctions produce desired results. Economic sanctions have been used as a foreign policy tool for a long time by the United States, but a recent study conducted at the Center For Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) in Washington, DC indicates that nearly all such sanctions fail. Another study at CSIS suggests that if forward-looking estimates of world oil demand by the year 2020 are correct, then currently sanctioned oil exporters Iran, Iraq and Libya will have to be producing at or near capacity if that demand is to be fulfilled. The author argued that unilateral economic sanctions are useless in influencing foreign policy behaviour, particularly since the future is shaped by globalization and by instant communications. However, even though other approaches are considered to be more desirable, the United States will continue to look to sanctions as a foreign policy tool in effecting change because it is influenced by special interest groups
[en] BAPETEN has executed administrative sanctions of the Government Regulation (GR) in the utilization of nuclear energy in the field of radiation and radioactive substances facility. Administrative sanctions stipulated in GR No 33 Year 2007, covering: (a) three written warnings; (b) the suspension of the operation of the installation; and/or (c) the revocation of license. While the GR. 29 Year 2008 the following administrative sanctions: (a) two written warnings; or (b) revocation of license. Although both the GR is dedicated specifically for regulatory controlling in FRZR field but enforcement mechanisms are set differently so it begs the question to the licensee. Inspector BAPETEN also asked two (2) points, namely: (1) why does it happen?; and (2) which GR will be applied if there is an administrative violence?The difference is due to the input of the General Director of Legislation, Ministry of Law and Human Right, namely: “regulatory nuclear must be regulated more strictly and firmly, do not need a temporary suspension, license revoked immediately after the warning letter until 2 times”. According to regulations, the GR will be implemented is published later. Conclusion: although there are differences in the two GR but do not significantly affect the regulatory control system if there is a violation of law related aspects of radiation safety and security of radioactive sources. Enforcement mechanism will be decided depending on the results of the assessment are based on the Chairman of BAPETEN investigative report by the inspector. (author)
[en] The paper is based on the research of the Administrative Monetary Penalties (AMP) in Canada and their usage in nuclear security. An AMP is an administrative penalty imposed by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), without court involvement. It is used in the case of a violation of a regulatory requirement. An AMP can be applied against any individual or corporation subject to the Nuclear Safety Control Act, which regulates the development, production and use of nuclear energy and the production, possession and use of nuclear and radioactive material. However, AMPs are not the same as criminal offences. They are civil sanctions which try to secure compliance through the application of monetary penalties for non-compliance with regulatory requirements. The AMP program was introduced in 2013 in Canada, and to this date 21 penalties have been issued. In all of these cases, the violations were related to handling and security of radioactive material. Based on these issued penalties research was conducted to discover pros and cons of the AMP system and to recommend improvements for the future. It will also address some of the main concerns of the system, such as the economic aspect of the process, and the other one is related to subjectivity and relative ease of issuing these penalties. The main goal is to discover whether or not the AMP system is a useful tool in nuclear security. Questions tackled in this paper include: Will AMPs make the nuclear environment more secure? In case of a mistake will employees follow the regulations and pay penalties or try to hide the mistakes and avoid penalties? Will individuals and/or corporations be willing to voluntary report violations without penalties, so that industry can build a body of knowledge and improve nuclear security? Is there a clear advantage in nuclear security with AMPs?
[en] The activities of Safety Administration Division covers many fields in Tokai-Works such as the management of a labor safety health, the crisis management and the security, the safeguards of the nuclear materials, the transport of nuclear materials, and the management of a quality assurance. This report is summary of the activities of Safety Administration Division in July to September in 2002. (author)
[en] Because the sanction mechanisms under the Marrakesh Accords affect the economy of complying countries, strategic considerations may play a role in decisions taken by members of the Enforcement Branch of the Kyoto Protocol. We show that members of the Enforcement Branch might face various incentives to not punish a non-compliant country, and that these incentives will differ between members from different countries. We further demonstrate that these differing incentives mean that a certain composition of the Enforcement Branch could decide that one country is not in compliance and impose sanctions, while another composition might decide that the same country is in compliance. Likewise, two different countries that display equivalent forms of non-compliance may receive different verdicts depending on the Enforcement Branch's composition