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[en] The apparent wall slip velocity coefficient of concentrated monodisperse suspensions of 90 μm PMMA particles in a viscous Newtonian fluid was determined experimentally in a narrow gap Couette device by measuring the particle velocities across the gap using a laser doppler anemometer system and then extrapolating the results to the two walls. The slip coefficients thereby obtained were found to be insensitive to the magnitude of the applied shear rate and to equal, approximately, λ/8 for particle concentrations φ in the range 0.45≤φ≤0.52, where λ refers to the relative effective viscosity of the suspension with respect to that of the pure fluid. copyright 1995 Society of Rheology
[en] This paper introduces a simple approach for the analysis of tire deformation and proposes a new piezoelectric tire sensor for physically meaningful measurements of tire deformations. Tire deformation measurements in the contact patch can be used for the estimation of slip angle, tire forces, slip ratio and tire–road friction coefficient. The specific case of a wireless tire deformation sensor for the estimation of slip angle is taken up in this paper. A sensor in which lateral sidewall deformation can be decoupled from radial deformation is designed. The slope of the lateral deflection curve in the contact patch is used to calculate slip angle. A specially constructed tire test rig is used to experimentally evaluate the performance of the developed sensor. Results show that the developed sensor can accurately estimate slip angles up to values of 5°
[en] The Wenchuan earthquake coseismic deformation field is inferred from the coseismic dislocation data based on a 3-D geometric model of the active faults in Sichuan-Yunnan region. Then the potential dislocation displacement is inverted from the deformation field in the 3-D geometric model. While the faults’ slip velocities are inverted from GPS and leveling data, which can be used as the long-term slip vector. After the potential dislocation displacements are projected to long-term slip direction, we have got the influence of Wenchuan earthquake on active faults in Sichuan-Yunnan region. The results show that the northwestern segment of Longmenshan fault, the southern segments of Xianshuihe fault, Anninghe fault, Zemuhe fault, northern and southern segments of Daliangshan fault, Mabian fault got earthquake risks advanced of 305, 19, 12, 9.1 and 18, 51 years respectively in the eastern part of Sichuan and Yunnan. The Lijiang-Xiaojinhe fault, Nujiang fault, Longling-Lancang fault, Nantinghe fault and Zhongdian fault also got earthquake risks advanced in the western part of Sichuan-Yunnan region. Whereas the northwestern segment of Xianshuihe fault and Xiaojiang fault got earthquake risks reduced after the Wenchuan earthquake.
[en] We have investigated the dynamics of superfluid phase slippage in an array of apertures. The magnitude of the dissipative phase slips shows that they occur simultaneously in all the apertures when the temperature is near Tλ-T≅10 mK and subsequently lose their simultaneity as the temperature is lowered. We describe three experiments to probe the mechanisms underlying the synchronous behavior. The results raise fundamental questions about the dynamics of phase slippage in a multiply connected geometry
[en] During NOVA operations it is planned to run the Fermilab Recycler in a 12 batch slip stacking mode. In preparation for this, measurements of the tune during a six batch injection and then as the beam is decelerated by changing the RF frequency have been carried out in the Main Injector. The coherent tune shifts due to the changing beam intensity were measured and compared well with the theoretically expected tune shift. The tune shifts due to changing RF frequency, required for slip stacking, also compare well with the linear theory, although some nonlinear affects are apparent at large frequency changes. These results give us confidence that the expected tunes shifts during 12 batch slip stacking Recycler operations can be accommodated.
[en] The model experiments which simulated shear slip induced by injection of pore fluid have been conducted under triaxial compressive stress condition using a roughened bare fault. The objective is to understand characteristics of the induced slip behaviour, especially after the slip initiation obeying Coulomb failure criterion and pore fluid behaviour associated with the induced slip. Experimental results showed that intermittent slip occurred in all the injection-induced slip experiments. Moreover, it was also found that the pore fluid flow into the fault increased instantaneously accompanying with dynamic slip, which represents a part of higher slip velocity (V > 0.05 mm/s, Vmax of 0.4 mm/s) in the intermittent slip. Quantitative estimation on the volume of the inflow of pore fluid during the dynamic slip suggested that a shear dilatancy would cause the instantaneous increase in pore fluid flow that occurred with the slip
[en] Incorporating rate and state friction laws, stability of linearly stable (i.e., with stiffness greater than the critical value) spring-slider systems subjected to triggering perturbations was analyzed under variable normal stress condition, and comparison was made between our results and that of fixed normal stress cases revealed in previous studies. For systems associated with the slip law, the critical magnitude of rate steps for triggering unstable slips are found to have a similar pattern to the fixed normal stress case, and the critical velocity steps scale with a/(b − a) when k = kcr for both cases. The rate-step boundaries for the variable normal stress cases are revealed to be lower than the fixed normal stress case by 7 %–16 % for a relatively large α = 0.56 with (b − a)/a ranging from 0.25 to 1, indicating easier triggering under the variable normal stress condition with rate steps. The difference between fixed and variable normal stress cases decreases when the α value is smaller. In the same slip-law-type systems, critical displacements to trigger instability are revealed to be little affected by the variable normal stress condition. When k ≥ kcr(V*), a spring-slider system with the slowness law is much more stable than with the slip law, suggesting that the slowness law fits experimental data better when a single state variable is adopted. In stick-slip motions, the variable normal stress case has larger stress drops than the constant normal stress case. The variable normal stress has little effect on the range of slip velocity in systems associated with the slowness law, whereas systems associated with the slip law have a slowest slip velocity immensely smaller than the fixed normal stress case, by ~10 orders of magnitude.
[en] This paper aims to investigate magnetic field and slip effects on developing laminar forced convection of nanofluids in the microchannels. A novel mixture of water and FMWNT carbon nanotubes is used as the working fluid. To do this, fluid flow and heat transfer through a microchannel is simulated by a computer code in FORTRAN language. The mixture of FMWNT carbon nanotubes suspended in water is considered as the nanofluid. Slip velocity is supposed as the hydrodynamic boundary condition while the microchannel's lower wall is insulated and the top wall is under the effect of a constant heat flux. Moreover, the flow field is subjected to a magnetic field with a constant strength. The results are presented as the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number profiles. It is observed that nanofluid composed of water and carbon nanotubes (FMWNT) can work well to increase the heat transfer rate along the microchannel walls. Furthermore, it is indicated that imposing the magnetic field is very effective at the thermally developing region. In contrast, the magnetic field effect at fully developed region is insignificant, especially at low values of Reynolds number. - Highlights: • Simulation of water/FMWNT carbon nanotubes flow in a microchannel. • The effects of magnetic field strength on nanofluid's slip velocity. • The effects of Ha, Re, ϕ and slip coefficient on averaged Nusselt number. • Magnetic field effect at developing flow region is significant.
[en] The tangential momentum accommodation coefficient was measured from the gaseous flow through a single microtube. The mass flow rate was measured by the constant volume technique, where the rate is related to time rate of pressure variation in a fixed volume tank. The measured mass flow rate was fitted by the theoretical mass flow rate expressed by the slip velocity at the surface to deduce the slip coefficient, which can be related to the tangential accommodation coefficient. The mean Knudsen number, which is determined as the mean pressure of the inlet and the outlet, was set to be below 0.32, where the second-order slip boundary condition was suggested to be valid. The measurement system was designed to allow using a microtube with large diameter of several hundred micrometers. Since low pressure environment was essential for large Knudsen number condition for the flow through such large microtube, a low leakage measurement system realized by applying the UHV technology is needed. Applicability of sub millimeters size microtubes allowed us to measure the tangential momentum accommodation coefficients on various materials. In this study, we measured the tangential momentum accommodation coefficients on an engineering metal surface for various gas species.
[en] An analysis of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a flat plate with slip condition at the boundary is presented. A complete self-similar set of equations are obtained from the governing equations using similarity transformations and are solved by a shooting method. In the boundary slip condition no local similarity occurs. Velocity and temperature distributions within the boundary layer are presented. Our analysis reveals that the increase of magnetic and slip parameters reduce the boundary layer thickness and also enhance the heat transfer from the plate. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))