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[en] In this research, we have developed a supervisory control approach to enable automated control of SMRs. By design the supervisory control system has an hierarchical, interconnected, adaptive control architecture. A considerable advantage to this architecture is that it allows subsystems to communicate at different/finer granularity, facilitates monitoring of process at the modular and plant levels, and enables supervisory control. We have investigated the deployment of automation, monitoring, and data collection technologies to enable operation of multiple SMRs. Each unit's controller collects and transfers information from local loops and optimize that unit’s parameters. Information is passed from the each SMR unit controller to the supervisory controller, which supervises the actions of SMR units and manage plant processes. The information processed at the supervisory level will provide operators the necessary information needed for reactor, unit, and plant operation. In conjunction with the supervisory effort, we have investigated techniques for fault-tolerant networks, over which information is transmitted between local loops and the supervisory controller to maintain a safe level of operational normalcy in the presence of anomalies. The fault-tolerance of the supervisory control architecture, the network that supports it, and the impact of fault-tolerance on multi-unit SMR plant control has been a second focus of this research. To this end, we have investigated the deployment of advanced automation, monitoring, and data collection and communications technologies to enable operation of multiple SMRs. We have created a fault-tolerant multi-unit SMR supervisory controller that collects and transfers information from local loops, supervise their actions, and adaptively optimize the controller parameters. The goal of this research has been to develop the methodologies and procedures for fault-tolerant supervisory control of small modular reactors. To achieve this goal, we have identified the following objectives. These objective are an ordered approach to the research: I) Development of a supervisory digital I&C system II) Fault-tolerance of the supervisory control architecture III) Automated decision making and online monitoring.
[en] South Africa's announcement that it is developing a roadmap for 2,500 MW of nuclear-powered generating capacity signals a policy revival that opens the door to all types of technologies and reactor sizes from 1,000 MW at the higher end to Generation N small modular reactors (SMRs) that range from 50-300 MW.
[en] New designs of reactors are studied worldwide, a great part of which being of Small Modular Reactors (SMR) type. The limited output power (less than 300 MWe) makes SMR an integrated reactor whose all components can be located in a unique pressure vessel. It also allows the implementation of passive safety systems which results in a far longer period of time for the operator to intervene in case of accident. The modular design of SMR allows the construction, testing of the modules in factory. Easily movable, the modules are carried to the site where they are set up. A fleet of several SMR units can be more flexible than a big reactor to complement power production from renewable energies. Experts think that the first SMR to be built will be of PWR-type because of its success in today's nuclear power plants. Beyond electricity production the SMR can be used for producing heat through cogeneration, for desalination or for hydrogen production. The SMR enlarges the nuclear demand for countries that have not a full-fledged distribution network of electricity. A SMR can be brought to supply electricity to a remote plant or town. Canada thinks to use SMR for providing heat and steam to its mining activities. The investment in one SMR is around 1 billion euros. (A.C.)
[en] SMR (Small Modular Reactor) could lead the renaissance of nuclear technology by luring young engineers on innovative and practical projects. However the implementation of SMRs with its new concepts of in-plant fabrication and on-site assembling require a double international standardization: a standardisation of the design and a standardization of licensing regulations. This double standardisation will allow SMR components fabricated in a plant to be assembled in a site located in another country without costly modifications. The IAEA has created a task group gathering reactor designers and regulators to prepare the way for changes in regulations. (A.C.)
[en] Outline: 1. Setting up the problem: current situation on EPZ for operating reactors (mostly large LWR); 2. SMR features that may impact EPZ; 3. The CRP on SMR EPZ: background, objectives and expected outcomes; 4. Key aspects to be taken into account for EPZ/D determination and its inclusion in CRP.
[en] The market for SMRs (Small Modular Reactors) rests on 3 segments: the first is the development of nuclear energy in countries whose power network is not big enough to install classical power reactors, the second represents the use of nuclear power in remote parts of a country that are not linked to the power distribution network and the last one is the development of nuclear power within a carbon-free energy mix where nuclear power compensates the intermittency of renewable energy sources or the inability of renewable energies to cover some demands like heat production or desalination. In order to be competitive on the levelized cost of electricity, SMRs have to benefit from specific features to compensate the economies of scale of big-sized power reactors. These specific features are of 2 types: technological and financial. The technological features are design simplification, modular structure that implies modular construction and then series construction. The main financial features are a less important initial investment, operating revenues that come sooner, they result from a shorter construction time (3 years) and from the possibility of adding SMR units on the same site. OECD expects a potential market of about 20 GWe by 2040 which represents the installation of 130 units of 150 MWe. (A.C.)
[en] The professional, societal, and economic rewards for commercializing Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) and Advanced Reactors (ARs) can be significant and daunting. A good technical concept is not enough. This paper is based on first-hand personal experience developing SMR and other new technologies. It will realistically address requirements for bringing SMR and AR technology to successful commercialization. The labyrinth of challenges addressed will include proof of concept, technical issues, markets & competition, brand recognition, fund raising, prototyping, licensing, personnel, partnerships, intellectual property, legal, accounting, deployment, and others. The commitment of time and money extends for years; and the end game is uncertain until a unit is successfully deployed and operating as planned. Not every idea will cross the finish line. Many will fail along the way. This paper focuses on the challenges that technology developers must confront and suggests actions to deal with them. It addresses a broad range of considerations from the entrepreneur's point of view. Technology developers should not rely totally on these insights and opinions but should consult with appropriate legal and financial experts when pursuing their business creation. (author)
[en] SMRs promise low cost, reliable, low carbon base load power whilst avoiding the pitfalls and cost over runs that have been the hallmark of large nuclear programs. However, arranging the financing for SMRs is extremely challenging and without financing, even the best SMR design will not come to fruition. This presentation will explore the challenges of financing SMRs, a comparison to the financing challenges faced by large nuclear projects and some potential solutions. This will not be a 'technical' presentation on SMRs but instead a practical viewpoint from a financier who has been involved in financing UK's 3200 MW Hinkley Point C new nuclear project and other low carbon power generation projects worldwide.
[en] The article describes the properties and (potential) benefits of small modular reactors (SMRs), current situation (SMRs in use, in construction, to be started up soon, under development, micro-SMRs), and examples (Akademik Lomonosov floating NPP, NuScale Power). (P.A.)
[en] Brief overview of: the current status and activities of LFR PSSC; the European Lead-cooled Fast Reactor ELFR; the BREST-OD-300 Lead-cooled Reactor; the Small Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (SSTAR); and the EC Next Step Update of Strategic European Documents.