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[en] Field experiments were conducted on soybean (Glycin max L.) in summer and potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) in autumn to evaluate the effect of row orientations of crops on some selected micro meteorological factors during 1994 and 1995. The intercepted solar radiation was the largest in the plants growing in bidirection in summer and it exhibited intermediate trend in autumn as compared to E-W or N-S row orientations. In summer, penetrated solar radiation between two plants and near the stem base of a N-S row was larger than that of E-W row. While in autumn, the observed solar radiation between two plants and near the stem base of a E-W row was markedly larger than that of N-S row. The area weighted mean of penetrated solar radiation was larger in E-W soybean rows but lower in potato rows as compared to N-S row orientations. Soil surface temperature between N-S potato rows was larger than that of E-W potato rows and the upper canopy surface temperature of potato was larger in E-W rows as compared to N-S rows. Net radiation observed over E-W potato rows was larger as compared to N-S potato rows but net radiation measured under canopy of E-W potato rows was smaller than that of in N-S rows. Net radiation measured over N-S soybean rows was larger than that of E-W soybean rows and it was smaller between N-S soybean rows when measured under canopy as compared to E-W rows. The albedo observed over potato was larger over E-W rows as compared to N-S rows. Albedos over soybean canopy showed opposite trend with the albedos observed over potato canopy. It was larger over N-S rows as compared to E-W rows. High harvest index was associated with larger interception of radiation. (author)
[en] Viral diseases are one of the main phytopathological problems affecting potato crops worldwide. To determine the most prevalent viruses in potato var. Diacol Capiro crops in Eastern Antioquia, 36 leaf samples were tested for the presence of PVY, PVA, PVV, TaLMV, PVS, PLRV, PYVV, PVX, ToRSV and PMTV using RT-qPCR. Detected viruses included PVY, PVX, PYVV, PLRV and PVS with prevalence levels of 88.9 %, 75.0 %, 75.0 %, 41.7 % and 25.0 %, respectively. PVS, PVY, PLRV and PVX were also tested by ELISA. PVS, PVY and PLRV tested positive in 80.5 %, 55.0 % and 5.5 % of samples; PVX was not detected. Prevalence Ratios (PR) suggests that detection is higher for PVY (PR = 1.6) and PLRV (PR = 7.5) using RT-qPCR. ELISA worked better for PVS with a PR of 3.2; this result suggests that the RT-qPCR primers used for PVS must be adjusted to reflect the genome diversity of virus in Antioquia. The most frequent coinfection was PVY-PYVV-PVX, which occurred in 22.2 % of samples; coinfection with PVY, PVX, PYVV, PLRV and PVS was present in 11.1 % of samples. The circulation of these viruses in Eastern Antioquia was further confirmed using Sanger and high-throughput sequence. This work highlights the need to strengthen integrated disease management programs of viruses in Antioquia.
[en] This study was undertaken In vitro to investigate the inhibitory effects of Chromium (Cr) VI by using K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ on the growth of adventitious roots of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv Desiree). Another objective was to determine possible reversal of the detrimental growth effects with suitable combinations of GA/sub 3/ and IAA. It was observed that the applied Cr VI (100 ppm) alone in MS media inhibited root growth. However, addition of selected combinations of GA/sub 3/ and IAA in the MS media along with Cr VI improved the root growth. The plants grown on MS medium + 100 ppm K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ resulted in reduction in number of adventitious roots up to 36.26%, number of rootlets (80.64%), diameter (37.27%), fresh and dry weights (72.96 and 84.74%, respectively) in comparison with control (MS medium). MS media containing 100 ppm K/sub 2/Cr/sub 2/O/sub 7/ + 20 ppm GA/sub 3/ + 16 ppm IAA enhanced the average number of roots from 4.78 to 62.6, number of rootlets from 2.6 to 28.2, diameter from 0.13 mm to 0.68 mm, fresh weight from 34.4 mg to 1234.75 mg and dry weight from 1.8 mg to 80.40 mg compared with cultures grown on MS + 100 ppm Cr (VI). The results thus highlight the fact that the deleterious effects of Cr VI on potato growth In vitro can be reversed with suitable hormonal treatments. Furthermore, this research has possible implications on large scale potato cultivation under heavy metal stress in a broader sense. (author)
[en] Highlights: • The expression of StPOTHR1 was positively correlated to the levels of potato resistance to P. infestans. • Suppression of POTHR1 does not compromise R-mediated cell death. • Overexpression of StPOTHR1 enhances resistance against P. infestans via restricting rapid pathogen proliferation. • StPOTHR1 is localized in plasma membrane and undergoes posttranslational modifications. A family of NDR1/HIN1-like (NHL) genes that shows homology to the nonrace-specific disease resistance (NDR1) and the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) harpin-induced (HIN1) genes is reported to be involved in defense. However, little information about NHL genes is available for the potato (Solanum tuberosum). Here, we report that the expression of StPOTHR1, a member of the NHL gene family, is associated with resistance in potato against Phytophthora infestans, and is specifically induced in inoculation sites. Overexpression of StPOTHR1 enhances resistance against P. infestans via restricting rapid pathogen proliferation. Further, suppression of StPOTHR1 does not compromise R-mediated cell death. Subcellular localization and posttranscription modifications (PTMs) analysis reveals that StPOTHR1 is localized in plasma membrane (PM) and undergoes multiple PTMs. Moreover, StPOTHR1 interacts with NbMKK5L, a component of the MAP kinase signaling cascade. Taken together, our results suggest that the PM-localized StPOTHR1 contributes to potato immunity against P. infestans and may be associated with the MAP kinase signaling cascade.
[en] In the present study, the expression patterns of the key genes in the gibberellin synthesis pathway in the potato dwarf mutant M4P-9 were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. Using Actin as an internal control, CPS1, KS, KO, GA20ox1, and GA2ox1, genes for key gibberellin synthesis enzymes, were evaluated, along with a gibberellin receptor gene. The standard curves were obtained from dilutions of PCR product; the correlation coefficient for Actin was 0.995, and those for the target genes varied from 0.994 to 1.000. The expression patterns of gibberellin pathway genes in different growth stages and tissues were calculated according to the method of Pfaffl. These genes showed expression patterns that varied based on growth stage and tissue type. The higher expression levels of CPS1 and GA2ox1 in roots, the lower expression levels of GA20ox1 in roots during tuber formation stage; as well as the increased expression of GA20ox1 and GA2ox1 genes in stems during the tuber formation stage, likely play key roles in the plant height phenotype in M4P-9 mutant materials. This article provides a basis for researching the mechanism of gibberellin synthesis in potato. (author)
[en] Potyviruses are one of the most limiting viruses for the potato (Solanum tuberosum and S. phureja) production worldwide, being PVY, PVV and PVA the most prevalent species. In this work, we tested the presence of these viruses in four commercial S. tuberosum cv. Diacol Capiro and S. phureja cv. Criolla Colombia plots in eastern Antioquia using RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing of the coat protein (CP) region, as well as next generation sequencing (NGS) for S. tuberosum samples. Our results revealed the presence of a PVV strain infecting S. phureja with high sequence identity (≥99%) to lineage PVVphu previously reported in Antioquia. Three strains of PVY (PVYN, PVYNTN and PVYO) were found to infect S. tuberosum. The presence of these three PVY strains was confirmed by NGS, allowing the assembly of their complete genomes. This is the first report of the full genome sequence of PVYo strain in Colombia. These findings highlight the need to adjust the tuber-seed certification programs currently implemented in the country.
[en] Highlights: • StC3′H catalyzed the formation of coumaroyl quinate and coumaroyl shikimate in vitro. • Antisense downregulation of StC3′H in potato tubers caused moderate increases in ferulic acid conjugates and chlorogenic acid. • A reduction in tuber yield was observed in antisense StC3′H lines, though their response to a bacterial pathogen was not significantly affected. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) plays an important role in protecting plants against pathogens and promoting human health. Although CGA accumulates to high levels in potato tubers, the key enzyme p-coumaroyl quinate/shikimate 3′-hydroxylase (C3′H) for CGA biosynthesis has not been isolated and functionally characterized in potato. In this work, we cloned StC3′H from potato and showed that it catalyzed the formation of caffeoylshikimate and CGA (caffeoylquinate) from p-coumaroyl shikimate and p-coumaroyl quinate, respectively, but was inactive towards p-coumaric acid in in vitro enzyme assays. When the expression of StC3′H proteins was blocked through antisense (AS) inhibition under the control of a tuber-specific patatin promoter, moderate changes in tuber yield as well as phenolic metabolites in the core tuber tissue were observed for several AS lines. On the other hand, the AS and control potato lines exhibited similar responses to a bacterial pathogen Pectobacterium carotovorum. These results suggest that StC3′H is implicated in phenolic metabolism in potato. They also suggest that CGA accumulation in the core tissue of potato tubers is an intricately controlled process and that additional C3′H activity may also be involved in CGA biosynthesis in potato.
[en] In the framework of a CEC-research program in radiation protection, the uptake and subsequent translocation of radionuclides in potato plants is studied. Results from these studies will be used to further refine computational models applied in calculating doses and in decision making after a potential nuclear fallout. Potatoes are an important staple food crop in western European countries. Foliar absorption of radionuclides plays a major role for the contamination of agricultural products during the first vegetation period after a nuclear fallout. This study aims at investigating the influence of the time-point of contamination on crop radionuclide content. Three groups of potato plants were of contaminated with an aqueous solution 134CsCl at three different time-points: Group A: First leaves were fully developed. Group B: Immediately before onset of flowering (4 weeks after group A). Group C: Onset of senescence (8 weeks after group A). Plants were harvested 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after each contamination, and after full tuber development. The distribution of 134Cs within the plants was studied in three compartments: contaminated part, newly grown part, and subterranean part (roots and tubers). A steady translocation of 134CS from the contaminated parts into the other parts of the plants was observed in all three groups. The highest radionuclide content of the crop was observed in group B, i.e. in fully developed plants: 58 ± 3% (n = 4) of the originally applied radioactivity was found in the tubers. This experiment clearly identified the beginning of tuber formation to be the most critical time for a foliar contamination. These results serve as an important experimental verification of parameters used in computational radioecological models of radionuclide transport through the biosphere