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[en] The profusion effect is the summing up of the production of several solar plants, it allows the reduction of the output fluctuations thanks to the geographical distribution of the sites. This effect has been testing on a pool of 18 solar plants. The larger the distribution zone, the bigger the profusion effect. The results show that a profusion effect at the scale of the country leads to a 60% decrease of the fluctuations in the power output and a better improvement of the production forecasts. (A.C.)
[en] The author reports photovoltaic power generation is an attractive source of energy since it involves the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity with no moving parts and no pollution. Following the demonstration of the first solar cell 35 years ago at Bell Laboratories, a steady stream of scientific and commercial progress has led to a rapid increase in applications in recent years. The first commercial application of solar cells occurred more than 20 years ago when they were used to supply power for space satellites, and even today photovoltaic arrays are used to supply electricity for most satellites and space probes. This paper reviews the status of the various photovoltaic technologies as well as present applications. The prospects for both distributed and central station grid-connected systems are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the institutional and political factors that will affect the introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic power systems
[en] It is known that a solar beam crossing a window losses 10% of its incident power. Yet, this affirmation is not supported by many published scientific evidences. In this work, a heat flux mapping method was used to determine the heat flux distributions at the focal spot of a solar concentrating device without and with a window on the incident beams' trajectory. The presence of a window on the beams' trajectory induces a 12% loss of the total power and a 11% decrease of the peak heat flux density.
[en] Here we present the different aspects of the EUROSUNMED project. The scientific targets of EUROSUNMED are the development of new technologies in three energy field areas, namely photovoltaics (PV), concentrated solar power (CSP) and grid integration (GI), in strong collaboration with research institutes, universities and SMSs from Europe in the north side of the Mediterranean sea and from Morocco and Egypt from the south of the sea. the focus in PV will be on thin film (Si, CZTS) based solar cells and modules while the goal in CSP field is to design and test new heliostats as well as novel solutions for energy storage compatible with these technologies. The project aims at producing components that will be tested under specific conditions of MPC (hot climate, absence of water, etc.). Such investigations are complemented with studies on grid integration of energy sources from PV and CSP in Morocco and Egypt context. Additionally, the consortium envisages training PhD students and post-docs in these interdisciplinary fields (chemistry, physics, materials science) in a close and fruitful collaboration between academic institutions and industry from EU and MPCs. The consortium is well placed around leading academic groups in materials science and engineering devices and equipments for the development of PV and CSP, and also in the promotion of the renewable energies in general. Moreover, technology transfer and research infrastructure development in the targeted areas will be provided. Disseminating the results of the projects will be done through the organization of summer schools and stakeholders involved in the 3 selected energy area and beyond. Another outreach of the project will be the proposal for a roadmap on the technological aspects (research, industry, implementation) of the PV, CSP and grid area as well as on the best practice for the continuation of strong collaboration between the EU and MPCS partners and beyond for mutual interest. (author)
[en] A method and apparatus are described for use in scientific measurement analysis and control. Travelling interference fringes are generated by radiating at least two different periodic waves at two different frequencies, one from each of two different radiators. The waves are received, mixed and filtered to detect at least one beat signal from these waves which represents the travelling interference fringe. The phase of that beat signal is detected relative to a reference signal of the same frequency as the beat signal. The radiated waves may be received at a second antenna and the phase of the beat of the waves at the first antenna is compared to the phase of the beat as observed at the second antenna. A third wave may be radiated from the first antenna to provide a reference signal which is the beat generated by the third wave and the other wave from the same radiator